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1) [line 1] MIN B'MINO LO BATIL
1. If most of the mixture is Isur, it is prohibited mid'Oraisa.(b) The above applies when unidentical substances are mixed (e.g. they were cooked together and the Isur is Nosen Ta'am to the Heter). However, when a liquid mixes with an identical liquid, the Tana'im argue as to the status of the mixture. According to Rabanan, since identical substances are not Nosen Ta'am to each other at all, the Isur can be nullified by a majority of Heter (and sixty parts of Heter are not required). According to Rebbi Yehudah, the opposite is true. Even a miniscule amount of Isur prohibits the mixture, since mid'Oraisa the Isur is not nullified at all. (When two identical *dry* substances become mixed together, all agree that the majority in the mixture determines the mixture's Halachic status -- TOSFOS DH Rebbi Yehudah. See, however, RASHI cited by Tosfos 81b DH Rebbi Yehudah.)
2) [line 8] TUM'AS MASHKIN
3) [line 9] TUM'AS SHERETZ
4) [line 19] DAVAR SHE'YESH LO MATIRIN
1. If most of the mixture is Isur, it is prohibited mid'Oraisa.(b) These rules apply to normal Isurim. There are, however, Isurim for which Chazal decreed that they not be nullified by a majority or even by sixty parts of Heter. One of these is Davar she'Yesh Lo Matirin, an object that will become permitted eventually, either by itself (such as an object that is Muktzah on Shabbos and Yom Tov and will become permitted when Shabbos or Yom Tov ends), or through its owner's actions (such as Tevel, for which one can separate Terumah to permit it to be eaten).
(c) The Rishonim offer various reasons to explain why the Rabanan were more stringent with a Davar she'Yesh Lo Matirin; see Insights to Beitzah 3a for a brief discussion of this.
5) [line 21] BEDUSA HI - it is fiction, i.e. a mistake
6) [line 1] SEDER OLAM - the earliest comprehensive chronicle of Jewish history, written by Rebbi Yosi Ben Chalafta (circa 130 CE)
7) [line 2] YERUSHAH RISHONAH U'SHNI'AH YESH LAHEN, SHELISHIS EIN LAHEN - the first two times that Benei Yisrael conquered Eretz Yisrael (in the days of Yehoshua and Ezra) were called "Yerushah" (inheritance) and they needed to sanctify the land; the third time is a continuation of the second inheritance and does not need a special sanctification
8) [line 6] MECHUVANOS - exactly
*9*) [line 10] TENAN, ANDROGINUS NOSEI - (The Gemara assumes that this part of the Mishnah is also part of Rebbi Yosi and Rebbi Shimon's statement. It is inferring that the Mishnah allows the wife of an Androginus to eat Terumah, since it did not use a post-facto (b'Di'eved) term, such as "If he gives a woman Kidushin, the Kidushin is valid" -- TOSFOS Dh Tenan.)
10) [line 18] SEKILAH MI'SHENEI MEKOMOS - an Androginus who has relations with a man and a man who has relations with an Androginus (as though he were a woman) is punished with Sekilah