POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Yevamos 19
1) THE WIFE OF A BROTHER THAT DIED BEFORE THE YAVAM WAS BORN
(a) He cannot do Yibum with one, and exempt the other -
perhaps Zikah is not like Yibum, and these are as 2
Yevamos falling from different brothers.
2) R. SHIMON SOMETIMES ADMITS
1. We see, R. Shimon is in doubt if Zikah is as Yibum.
(b) Suggestion: Perhaps D'oraisa he can do Yibum with one and
exempt the other; Rabbinically, this is not allowed, lest
people say that this is the law for Yevamos that fall
from different brothers.
(c) Rejection: R. Shimon's reason is because of the Ma'amar!
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon): If the Ma'amar is as Yibum -
he does Yibum with the widow of the 2nd brother; if
Ma'amar is not as Yibum - he does Yibum with the
widow of the 1st brother!
(d) Question (Abaye): Don't you distinguish between Zikah
when there is 1 Yavam, and when there are 2?
1. Perhaps R. Shimon only says Zikah is as Yibum when
there is only 1 Yavam!
(e) Question: Does R. Shimon really make such a distinction?
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon): The general rule is, if the
brother was born before the Yibum, she does neither
Chalitzah nor Yibum; , if the brother was born after
the Yibum, she does Chalitzah or Yibum.
(f) Objection (Beraisa - R. Shimon): Both are exempt!
2. Suggestion: There is 1 brother, and she is exempt
(when the Yavam was born before the Yibum)!
3. Rejection: No there are 2 brothers.
4. Question: But if there was only 1, she would do
Chalitzah or Yibum?
i. If so rather than teaching (in the end of the
Beraisa) when the Yavam was born after the
Yibum - make the distinction when he was born
before - when he is the only brother, she does
Chalitzah or Yibum!
5. Answer: The entire Beraisa is a case of 2 Yevamim.
6. Question #!: If so, this is not such a general rule!
7. Question #2(Rav Oshiya - Mishnah): 3 brothers, 2 are
married to sisters, or a woman and her daughter, or
a woman and her daughter's daughter, or a woman and
her son's daughter - they do Chalitzah, not Yibum;
R. Shimon says, they are exempt.
i. If R. Shimon holds that Zikah is like Yibum, he
may do Yibum with one and exempt the other!
8. Answer (Rav Amram): True! R. Shimon only said that
the 2nd widow is exempt.
(g) Answer #1(Rava): The 2nd widow in each pair is exempt.
1. Rava misunderstood the Beraisa of 4 pairs.
(h) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): If they fell to Yibum at different
times, one could do Yibum on 1 and exempt the other.
i. Mistake #1: Each brother had only 1 wife (not
4) - the 2 wives were related in 1 of the 4
ii. Mistake #2: According to Rava, it should have
said, R. Shimon exempts all 4.
iii. Mistake #3: A Beraisa teaches, R. Shimon
exempts them because of "Do not take to be
Tzaros - when (sisters) are Tzaros to each
other (through Zikah), you cannot marry either.
1. The case is, they fell to Yibum simultaneously.
2. R. Shimon holds as R. Yosi ha'Gelili, who says that
it is possible that 2 events (e.g. deaths) happened
at the exact same time.
(a) (Rav Papa): R. Shimon only argues when the brother is
born after Yibum; he admits, if he is born before, he
admits to Chachamim that she is exempt.
1. Both Mishnayos are needed to teach the opinion of
(b) A Beraisa supports Rav Papa and refutes Rav Oshiya.
2. The 2nd Mishnah teaches more than the first.
1. (Beraisa): A man died, leaving a brother Shimon.
Another brother was born before Shimon had a chance
to give a Ma'amar; Shimon died;
2. The first widow is exempt as the wife of a brother
that died before the Yavam was born; the 2nd does
Chalitzah or Yibum;
3. If Shimon made a Ma'amar before or after a brother
was born, and died - the 1st widow is exempt as the
wife of a brother that died before the Yavam was
born; the 2nd does Chalitzah, not Yibum;
4. R. Shimon says, Yibum or Chalitzah on one woman
(i.e. the one that did not receive the Ma'amar)
exempts her Tzarah.
(c) Question: Why was the last clause taught?
i. If the woman that received the Ma'amar does
Chalitzah, her Tzarah is not exempted.
5. If Shimon did Yibum, died, and then a brother was
born; or, if a brother was born, and then Shimon did
Yibum and died - R. Meir says, both are exempt from
Chalitzah and Yibum;
6. R. Shimon says, since he (the newborn brother)
entered the world when she was permitted, and was
never forbidden to him, he may do Yibum or Chalitzah
with either one.
1. Suggestion: If it teaches how R. Meir holds - he
does not distinguish if the brother was born before
or after Yibum, both cases should have been taught
2. Rather, it was taught to reveal how R. Shimon holds.
i. We see, R. Shimon only argues when the Yibum
preceded the birth, but admits when the birth
preceded the Yibum.
(a) (Beraisa (above)): Shimon was going to give a Ma'amar; a
brother was born before he did; Shimon died;
4) THE REASON OF R. SHIMON
(b) The first widow is exempt as the wife of a brother that
died before the Yavam was born, the 2nd does Chalitzah or
(c) Question: What does it mean, he was going to give a
Ma'amar but did not?
1. If he gave it, he gave it; if not, not!
(d) Answer: He wanted to give it with her consent, but was
not able, and gave it against her will.
1. This is unlike Rebbi.
(e) (Beraisa (above)): If Shimon made a Ma'amar before or
after a brother was born, and died - the 1st widow is
exempt as the wife of a brother that died before the
Yavam was born; the 2nd does Chalitzah, not Yibum;
2. (Beraisa - Rebbi): A Ma'amar given against the will
of the Yevamah is valid; Chachamim say, it is
i. Rebbi learns Ma'amar from Yibum. Just as Yibum
works against her will, also Ma'amar.
ii. Chachamim learn from regular engagement, which
requires her consent.
iii. Rebbi says it is better to learn matters of a
Yevamah from matters of a Yevamah; Chachamim
say, it is better to learn engagement from
(f) R. Shimon says, Yibum or Chalitzah on one woman exempts
(g) Question: In which case is R. Shimon speaking?
1. Suggestion: If when the Ma'amar was done after the
birth - but we proved that R. Shimon admits when the
birth precedes Yibum!
(h) (Beraisa (above)): If he does Chalitzah to the widow that
received a Ma'amar, her Tzarah is not exempted.
2. Rather, when the Ma'amar preceded the birth.
1. The reason is, the Tzarah definitely fell to Yibum;
but the receiver of the Ma'amar might not (if
Ma'amar is not as Yibum, she is the wife of a
brother that died before the Yavam was born); a
Chalitzah of doubtful validity cannot exempt a woman
that definitely fell to Yibum.
(a) Question (Rav Menasheh Bar Zvid): What is the reason of
1. Question: The Beraisa explicitly says, since she was
permitted from the day he was born!
(b) Correction of question: Rather, what is the reason of
(c) Answer: "He will take her as a wife and do Yibum" - she
still is considered a Yevamah.
(d) Question (Mishnah): When he does Yibum, she is as his
wife in all respects.
(e) (R. Yosi Bar Chanina): This teaches that he can divorce
her and remarry her.