POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafYoma 86
YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
1) R. YEHUDAH ON ASEH AND LO SA'ASEH (cont'd)
(a) Question (on R. Yehudah): The Berasia teaches a cutoff- Lo
Sisa and those lesser are atoned through Teshuvah (presum-
ably this refers to all Lavin without Lo Yenakeh HaShem)!?
(b) Answer: No, those comparable to Lo Sisa refers to all Lo
Sa'aseh with Malkos (but that those with less than Malkos
*would* be atoned with Teshuvah alone, as per R. Yehudah).
(c) Question: The Beraisa explaining VeNakeh and Lo YeNakeh
implies that Lavin *are* atoned by Teshuvah alone!?
(d) Answer: It is a Machlokes Tanaim (as cited).
(e) Question: How do we know that VeNakeh refers to Teshuvah
(f) Answer: From the Beraisa of R. Elazar (who resolves the
apparent contradiction between VeNakeh and Lo YeNakeh-
Ve'Nakeh refers to someone who has done Teshuvah, and Lo
YeNakeh to someone who has not).
(a) R. Elazar b. Azaryah (citing R. Yishmael) taught there are
only three categories (unlike the assumption of R. Masya b.
Charash) as Teshuvah is not an atonement, it is a
prerequisite for the other three.
3) CHILUL HASHEM
1. One who violates an Aseh and does Teshuvah is atoned at
that time (proof text).
2. One who violates a Lo Sa'aseh and Aseh, Teshuvah
suspends the affliction and Yom Kipur atones (text).
3. One who violates a Kares or Misas Beis Din, his
Teshuvah, together with Yom Kipur, suspend the sentence
and affliction brings atonement (text).
4. For Chilul HaShem, all of the above only suspend, while
death is needed to atone (text).
(a) Question: What defines Chilul HaShem?
(b) Answer (Rav): If I were to take meat from the butcher and
not pay immediately (thus causing the merchant to consider
me a thief and will come to treat Gezel lightly).
1. (Abaye) That is only a Chilul HaShem in a locale where
it is customary for people to pay the merchants without
being billed by the merchant, but if the merchant
customarily collects his debts, there is no problem
following local custom.
(c) Answer (R. Yochanan): If I were to walk four Amos without
Torah and Tefilin (leading people to treat these lightly).
2. (Ravina) My locale is one where the merchants collect.
3. Abaye, when purchasing an item from partners, would
give half the money to each (rather than all the money
to one) and call them to reckon his bill, to be above
the suspicion (on the part of the second) that he had
(d) Answer (Yitzhok D'Vei R. Yanai): One whose reputation causes
embarrassment to his friends.
(e) Answer (R. Nachman b. Yitzhok): One whose friends must add
to his name, "May HaShem forgive him..."
(f) Answer (Abaye): As the Beraisa describes the fulfillment of
Kidush HaShem (people praising the gentle honest manner of
those who study Torah) and its opposite (decrying the
absence of these good traits in one who studies Torah).
(a) Teshuvah causes healing in the world (proof text).
(b) Question (R. Chama b.R. Chanina): One Pasuk indicates that
Teshuvah causes the sinner to be viewed, retroactively, as
only a wild child (not a sinner) while another Pasuk sees
Teshuvah as healing that which was ill?
(c) Answer: Teshuvah out of love brings retroactive revision,
while Teshuvah out of fear only heals from then on.
(d) Question (R. Yehudah): One Pasuk calls to the penitent as a
son; the other calls to him as a servant?
(e) Answer: Teshuvah is pleasant when it is out of love or fear;
while it will come about through affliction when it is
forced upon Yisrael by the Master, Hashem.
(f) (R. Levi) Teshuvah reaches Hashem's Throne (proof text).
(g) (R. Yochanan) Teshuvah is so great that it (so to speak)
overrides a Lo Sa'aseh in the Torah (the Lav of taking back
one's divorced wife after marriage to another man, as
indicated in the proof text).
5) THE BA'AL TESHUVAH
(h) (R. Yonasan) Teshuvah brings the redemption (proof text).
(i) (Resh Lakish) Teshuvah causes Zedonos to be Shegagos (text).
1. Question: But Resh Lakish has taught that Zedonos
become Zechuyos (proof text)!?
(j) (R. Shmuel b. Nachmani) Teshuvah lengthens one's years
2. Answer: One speaks of Teshuvah MiYira'ah (they become
Shegagos) and one speaks MiAhavah (become Zechuyos).
(k) (R. Yitzhok) Compare the ways of Man with those of Hashem.
1. Someone who sins against his fellow must wonder if the
other will be appeased at all, and if so, at what cost.
(l) (R. Meir in the Beraisa) Teshuvah on an individual brings
atonement for the entire world (proof text).
2. One who transgresses the Will of HaShem need only
approach Him with words (which will be credited as if
he brought the finest Korban), and he will not only be
received, but appreciated!
(a) Question: What constitutes a Ba'al Teshuvah?
(b) Answer (R. Yehudah): One who avoids transgressing the same
sin on another two occasions (e.g. with the same woman,
during the same period of his life, in the same location).
(c) Question (R. Yehudah, citing Rav): One Pasuk praises the one
who conceals his sin, and another does the opposite!?
(d) Answer (Rav): One should confess (and suffer embarrassment)
from public Aveiros, but should not publicize private ones.
(e) Answer (R. Zutra b. Tuvyah citing R. Nachman): One should
openly confess his sins against his fellow, but conceal
those against HaShem.
(f) (R. Yosi b. Yehudah) Hashem forgives the same sin performed
(by Klal Yisrael as well as by an individual) three times,
but not four (two proof texts are needed to make the point
by both the Klal and the Yachid).
(a) (Tana Kama) Aveiros which one confessed one Yom Kipur should
not be confessed on the next, (unless the Aveirah was
repeated) for doing so is like returning to the filth which
he left behind (proof text).
(b) (R. Eliezer b. Yakov) One should keep one's sins before
himself always (proof text).
1. Question: How will R. Eliezer explain the Tana Kama's
(c) (R. Yehudah b. Bava) One must specify the Aveirah when
confessing (proof text).
2. Answer: He learns from there Rav Huna's slogan - that
once a person sins twice, it begins to *appear* to him
as if the sin was permitted.
(d) (R. Akiva) It is unnecessary to specify.
1. Question: How will R. Akiva understand the proof text
from Moshe (confessing the sin of the People)?
(e) Our faithful leaders, Moshe Rabeinu and Dovid HaMelech
differed on their desire to have their transgression
2. Answer: He learns R. Yanai's teaching, that Moshe
attempted to reduce the People's guilt.
1. Dovid HaMelech asked Hashem to *hide* his sin.
(f) It is proper to publicize the identity of Chanafim (as in
the proof text, to prevent the Chilul HaShem which results
from People learning from the actions of these evildoers
posing as Tzadikim and also questioning the punishment which
comes to these people).
2. Moshe asked Hashem to *publicize* his.
3. As in the Mashal cited, Moshe wanted all to know the
difference between the sin which prevented him from
entering Eretz Yisrael and that which prevented Yisrael
from entering (Meraglim).
(g) The Teshuvah of total Resha'im delays their punishment even
if it has already been sealed.
(h) The tranquil life of Resha'im is an obstacle (that impedes
the world's progress), because it affords them time to
devise their evil plans.
(i) Authority buries its incumbents.
(j) One leaves the world as he came into it (were that a person
could leave it as free of sin).
(k) Before going out to judge, Rav and Rava used to say 'Of
one's own freewill one goes to one's death (referring to the
heavy responsibility of judging), even though one gains
nothing in the process, were that he could return home
(blameless) as he left.'