ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafYoma 69
YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
(a) There is no proof from the Seifa of the Mishnah in Tamid, which permits
the Kohanim to place the Bigdei Kehunah under their heads (as cushions),
that Kohanim may derive benefit from the Bigdei Kehunah - because the Tana
really means, not underneath their heads, but at the side (and it comes to
reach us that we are not concerned that he may roll over and lie on top of
them - see Tosfos Yeshanim DH 'Shema Minah').
(b) We can learn from there that one may do the same with Tefilin (which
may not be used as a cushion for the same reason).
(c) We try to prove that the Mishnah has to mean placing the Begadim at the
*side* - because otherwise, it would be forbidden at all costs, due to the
Isur of Kil'ayim - since the belt (the Avnet) was made of wool and linen.
(d) This proof will not hold water according to the opinion which maintains
that the Avnet of the Kohen Hedyot was made in the same way as that of the
Kohen Gadol on Yom Kipur (which was pure linen and contained no Sha'atnez).
(a) It is forbidden to wear Kil'ayim or to place it on top of oneself - min
ha'Torah. And it is ...
(b) Rav Ashi explains the Seifa of the Mishnah in Tamid literally -
permitting the Kohanim even to lie directly on the Bigdei Kehunah (as long
as they are not wearing them). He is not concerned with the Isur of
Kil'ayim - because the Bigdei Kehunah were hard, and therefore did not give
warmth, in which case they were not subject to the Isur of Kil'ayim (even
- ... forbidden to lie on top of it or ...
- ... to place a sheet for example, in between oneself and the Kil'ayim - mi'de'Rabbanan.
(c) We finally prove that the Kohanim were permitted to derive benefit from
the Bigdei Kehunah from a Beraisa - which explicitly permits the Kohanim to
wear them even whilst not performing the Avodah.
(d) This concession did not extend to wearing them *outside* the Beis
Hamikdash - presumably due to the fact that it was only permitted the Torah
was given to human-beings and not to angels - a reason that only applied
inside the Beis Hamikdash, where they were either performing the Avodah, or
were between one Avodah and the next.
(a) The twenty-fifth of Teves was known as 'Yom Har Gerizim' - because that
was the day on which they prevailed over the Kutim and destroyed their
temple on Har Gerizim, as we shall now see.
(b) The Kutim tried (successfully) to persuade Alexander the Great that the
Jews were rebelling against him and that he should therefore destroy the
(c) When Shimon ha'Tzadik heard about their plans, he put on the Bigdei
Kehunah Gedolah, and left Yerushalayim to intercept Alexander (who was
accompanied by the delegation of Kutim) and his army before they reached
(d) The moment Alexander set eyes on Shimon ha'Tzadik - he dismounted and
bowed down before him. The reason for this was because Shimon ha'Tzadik had
appeared to him in his dreams (according to the Agados Maharsha, it was an
angel who resembled Shimon ha'Tzadik).
(a) When Alexander asked him why he had come - Shimon ha'Tzadik replied
that the Beis Hamikdash was a place where they prayed for the his well-
being and that of his kingdom, and that the Kutim had tricked him into
(b) When Shimon ha'Tzadik informed Alexander that the people who were
trying to convince him to destroy the Beis Hamikdash were the Kutim who
were now accompanying him - he replied that they were his to do with as he
(c) Shimon ha'Tzadik took up Alexander's offer - by piercing a hole in
their ankles, by which they were tied to the horse's tails. Then they were
dragged over thorns and thistles until they reached Har Gerizim.
(d) When they arrived at Har Gerizim, they plowed up their temple and sowed
the area with oats - just as the Kutim had planned to do to the Beis
(a) We just learned that Shimon ha'Tzadik wore the Bigdei Kehunah outside
the Beis Hamikdash, whereas the Beraisa that we quoted earlier forbade
(b) We answer this Kashya by pointing out that the garments that Shimon
ha'Tzadik wore were not really Bigdei Kehunah, but only resembled them.
Alternatively, this was an emergency, and David ha'Melech already wrote in
Tehilim "Eis La'asos la'Hashem Hefeiru Torasecha" (that one may sometimes
nullify Torah when it is for the sake of Hashem).
(a) We have no proof from our Mishnah (which describes how they handed the
Sefer Torah from one dignitary to another - in the presence of the Kohen
Gadol) that one may honor a disciple (a senior dignitary) in the presence
of the Rav (the Kohen Gadol) - because in our case, when the junior
dignitary honored the senior one, it was in honor of the Kohen Gadol (to
demonstrate how many levels of dignitaries were below him.
(b) There is no problem with our Mishnah, which implies that the Kohen
Gadol had been sitting in the Azarah - because this all took place in the
Ezras Nashim (where sitting was permitted) and not in the Ezras Yisrael
(where only kings of Yehudah were permitted to sit).
(c) We learn that kings of Yehudah were permitted to sit in the Azarah -
from David ha'Melech (from a Pasuk in Divrei Hayamim).
(d) We learn the prohibition for anyone else to do so - from the Pesukim in
Shoftim "La'amod le'Shares" and "ha'Omdim Sham Lifnei Hashem" combined with
the fact that nowhere do we find any reference to someone sitting - with
the notable exception of David ha'Melech that we just quoted.
(a) According to the Tana Kama, the King read Sefer Devarim at 'Hakheil' in
the Ezras Nashim.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov holds that he read it on Har ha'Bayis.
(c) "Vayevarech Ezra es Hashem ha'Elokim ha'Gadol". Rav interprets the word
"ha'Gadol" to mean that he pronounced the Name of Hashem the way it is
(d) Rav Gidal explains it with the Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim "Baruch Hashem
Elokei Yisrael min ha'Olam ve'ad ha'Olam" - because it was on this occasion
that Ezra instituted the insertion of this Pasuk at the end of each
Berachah instead of the three words 'Baruch Ata Hashem'.
(a) Rav Gidal disagreed with Rav about pronouncing Hashem's Name the way it
is written - in the Ezras *Nashim*. According to him, this was only done in
the Ezras *Yisrael*.
(b) He reconciled this with what he said elsewhere (to explain a Pasuk in
Nechemyah: 'she'Gidlo be'Shem ha'Meforash' - even though that was outside
the Azarah) by establishing it as a 'Hora'as Sha'ah' (a one-time-only
ruling, confined to that occasion).
(c) The Pasuk in Nechemyah says "Vayiz'aku el Hashem Elokim be'Kol Gadol".
They were crying about the Yetzer ha'Ra for Avodah-Azarah, which was been
the main cause of the destruction of the first Beis Hamikdash and all the
calamities that followed.
(d) They asked Hashem to remove that Yetzer ha'Ra - because they were
willing to forego the reward for overcoming it, as long as they were rid of
(a) On the paper that fell from Heaven in response, was written the one
word 'Emes', a clear sign that Hashem agreed with them. We learn from there
that the seal of Hashem is 'Emes'.
(b) After ...
1. ... they had fasted (successfully) for three consecutive days and nights
- the Yetzer ha'Ra was delivered to them in the form of a lion-whelp which
emerged from the Kodesh Kodshim.
(c) They then took the opportunity and prayed for the Yetzer-ha'Ra for
adultery to be delivered into their hands as well. They did not ...
2. ... after a hair of its head fell out and it proceeded to roar - they
expressed fear that Hashem may have pity on it; they followed the advice of
the Navi and placed it in a metal pot which they covered with lead (which
deadens the voice).
1. ... find any eggs - so effective were their prayers.
(d) So they decided to paint its eyes - with the result that it would no
longer plague us with regard to incest (though the Yetzer ha'Ra for
adultery for a married woman did not diminish).
2. ... kill it - because without it, people would not have children and the
world would soon come to an end.
3. ... pray for half of it to be removed - because Hashem does not answer
prayers in halves.
(a) In Eretz Yisrael they quoted a Machlokes how to explain the Pasuk
"Vayiz'aku *be'Kol Gadol*". Rav Gidal explained 'she'Gidlo be'Shem
ha'Meforash'. Rav Masna explained it with reference to the re-instating of
the words "ha'Keil ha'Gadol ha'Gibor ve'ha'Nora" (the same words as Moshe
Rabeinu used to describe Hashem) into the Amidah.
Yirmiyah and Daniel had the right to abolish what Moshe inserted - because
saying something that was false was futile, when we know how much Hashem
detests falsehood and always concedes the truth.
(b) Rav Masna's explanation tallies with Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who
ascribes the title given to the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah for this very
reason (because they reinstated the words Tefilah "ha'Keil ha'Gadol
ha'Gibor ve'ha'Nora" into the Tefilah).
(c) Moshe said in Eikev "ha'Keil ha'Gadol ha'Gibor ve'ha'Nora".
1. Yirmiyah omitted "Nora" - because, he argued, what with gentiles dancing
in Hashem's Heichal, where is His might?
(d) The Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah reinstate ...
2. Daniel omitted "ha'Gibor" - because, he said, now that the gentiles are
subjugating His children (K'lal Yisrael), where is His might?
1. ... "Gibor" - because they countered, to be able to give the gentiles
leeway to do what they were doing and not stop them was in itself an act of
might ('Eizehu Gibor, ha'Kovesh es Yitzro!').
2. ... "Nora" - because the fact that the gentiles are unable to finish the
job, testifies that Hashem's awesomeness still pervades the world.
(a) The Mishnah in Megilah forbids the Ba'al Korei to jump from one place
to the other in Torah only if one cannot reach the second place before the
translator concludes his translation - and from Acharei-Mos to Emor is
close enough to do so.
(b) The Tana of the Beraisa, who permits 'jumping' in the Navi *only* on
this condition, implying that in Torah, even *that* is forbidden - speaks
about jumping from one topic to another, which he permits in Navi (provided
the Tzibur does not need to wait once the translator has finished). In
Torah, 'jumping' is only permitted when it remains the same topic.
(c) Jumping in the Navi is permitted even from one topic to another -
because the stakes are low (i.e. unlike Torah, there are no Mitzvos that
one has to beware of the people not understanding).