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1) [line 5] VA'YIKATZ K'YASHEN HA'PIGUL - the Pigul woke up like one who was sleeping. The person's first thought (to eat half of a k'Zayis of the Korban Chutz l'Zemano) did not make the Korban become Pigul, because it involved only a half of a k'Zayis. His second thought (to eat half of a k'Zayis of the Korban Chutz l'Mekomo) combined with the first thought to make the Korban become *Pasul*, but not Pigul. Now, when the person has a thought to eat an additional half of a k'Zayis Chutz l'Zemano, it joins the first thought and "wakes up" the "sleeping" status of Pigul. (This phrase is based on a verse in Tehilim (78:65), "va'Yikatz k'Yashen HaSh-m" - "HaSh-m was aroused like one who was sleeping, [like a warrior rousing himself from wine].")
2) [line 7] K'VEITZAH - an amount of a k'Veitzah [of food that is Tamei with Rishon l'Tum'ah (see next entry), which became mixed with food that is Tamei with Sheni l'Tum'ah]. The minimum amount of Tamei food required to make other food and drinks Tamei is a Beitzah (the size of a chicken egg without its shell, which is equivalent to approximately 0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).
3) [line 7] OCHEL RISHON / OCHEL SHENI / AV HA'TUM'AH / VELAD HA'TUM'AH (THE
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TUM'AH: TUM'AS OCHLIN)
1. Sources of Tum'ah(b) All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah."
(c) When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Velad ha'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. (Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.)
(d) A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)
(e) Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul."
4) [line 8] SHE'BELALAN - that he mixed them with each other
8a) [line 14] HA'OCHEL SHE'NITMA B'AV HA'TUM'AH - food that became Tamei by
[contact with] an Av ha'Tum'ah (and thus is a Rishon l'Tum'ah); see above,
9) [line 16] L'TAMEI BA'KAL SHEBI'SHNEIHEM - [the food that is a Rishon l'Tum'ah and the food that is a Sheni l'Tum'ah combine, but only] to make another food Tamei with the more lenient form of Tum'ah of the two foods (that is, we treat the combination as a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and thus it makes Terumah become Pasul, and it does not make Terumah become a Sheni l'Tum'ah)
10) [line 17] AF AL GAV D'HADAR MALYEI - even though, afterwards, he added more Rishon l'Tum'ah food to the mixture [to make the total amount of Rishon l'Tum'ah food equal to the size of a Beitzah]
11) [line 28] "V'ES IZEVEL YOCHLU HA'KELAVIM" - "And the dogs will eat Izevel" (Melachim II 9:10) - The prophet foretells the morbid end of Achav, his wife Izevel, and his entire family. The Gemara derives from this verse that the act of eating of dogs is also considered "eating."
12) [line 31] "[KOL CHOSHECH TAMUN LI'TZFUNAV,] TE'ACHLEHU ESH LO NUPACH; [YERA SARID BE'AHOLO.]" - "[Utter darkness is prepared for his treasures,] a fire not blown shall consume him; [it shall go ill for him that is left in his tent.]" (Iyov 20:26)
13) [line 3] B'YESER MI'CHEDEI ACHILAS PERAS - [a person had a thought to
eat a k'Zayis of the meat of a Korban, Chutz l'Zemano,] in more time than
"Kedei Achilas Peras" (K'ZAYIS BI'CHDEI ACHILAS PERAS)
14) [line 10] B'HESEK GADOL - in a large fire [upon the Mizbe'ach, which burns a k'Zayis of the Korban in less than the time of "Kedei Achilas Peras" (see previous entry)
15) [line 36] HA'PESULIN - those who are ineligible to perform the Avodos of a Korban
16) [line 38] AVADIM - slaves [owned by a Kohen] (EVED KENA'ANI)
17) [line 38] TEMEI'IM - Kohanim who are Tamei (and are thus disqualified from performing the Avodah. Rashi explains that this refers to Kohanim who are Tamei with Tum'as Sheretz, a form of Tum'ah which is not transferred to the knife with which they slaughter the Korban, and thus they are permitted to perform the Shechitah. Alternatively, it refers to Kohanim who are Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but who use a knife made of wood which cannot become Tamei.)