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by Zvi Akiva Fleisher

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Ch. 21, v. 1: "Emor ...... v'omarto" - Rashi (gemara Y'vomos 114a) says that the double expression teaches us that the mature people are responsible to teach the young people. This is simply understood as the first "amiroh" saying is to the mature people, and the second "amiro" is that of the mature people to the young people. However, Rabbi Reuvaine Grozovski zt"l explains that the meaning is that the stating of the laws should be said and repeated to the mature people, thus infusing them with such a great amount of spiritual energy that it will spill over to the young people.

Ch. 21, v. 10: "V'haKohein hagodol mei'echov asher yutzak al rosho shemen hamish'choh u'mi'lei es yodo lilbosh es habgodim es rosho lo yifro u'v'godov lo yifrome" - Couldn't the verse have left out the words "asher yutzak al rosho shemen hamish'choh u'mi'lei es yodo lilbosh es habgodim" and simply have stated that the Kohein Godol should not let his hair be unkempt and should not rent his garments as signs of mourning?

The N'sivos Olom answers in the name of the Rshash that the Torah is giving us the reasons behind the restrictions. Because the Kohein Godol had had his head anointed he is not permitted to have his hair unkempt, and because he has dressed himself with the unique apparel of a Kohein Godol he shall not rent his clothes in mourning.

Perhaps on a simple level, this is the first time the Torah mentions the procedure of installing a Kohein Godol.

Ch. 21, v. 12: "U'min haMikdosh lo yeitzei" - The Rambam in hilchos klei haMikdosh 5:7 writes that the Kohein Godol's home must be in Yerusholayim and he may not leave the city. The Minchas Chinuch and others are hard-pressed to find a source for this ruling. The Tzofnas Paa'nei'ach, the Margolis Hayum, and the GRI"Z find a source for the Rambam in the mishnoh brought in Sanhedrin 18a. The mishnoh explains how the Kohein Godol follows the bier of a deceased relative. To remain a safe distance from the deceased so as to avoid becoming defiled, the mishnoh says that he must remain behind the procession in a manner that the bier of the deceased is always out of his line of vision. This is so until the opening of the gate of Jerusalem. Why does the mishnoh stop detailing the Kohein Godol's manner of following at the gate of the city? It seems from here that he may not go any further. Although the mishnoh mentions the opinion of Rabbi Yehudoh that the Kohein Godol does not leave the Mikdosh campus at all and the Rambam rules according to Rabbi Yehudoh in 5:5, nevertheless, the point indicated by the mishnoh not mentioning the Kohein Godol's progress beyond the city walls, indicating that he may go no further, which is irrelevant to their disagreement, is not under dispute.

Perhaps another source for the Rambam might be that since the Kohein Godol must offer a daily Minchas Chavitin, this might require his remaining in Yerusholayim all day and overnight, as is the case with all who offer a sacrifice who come to Yerusholayim. Since this is a daily requirement he must remain in Yerusholayim for the rest of his life, as long as he is still a Kohein Godol.

Ch. 21, v. 13: " V'HU ishoh bivsu'lehoh yikoch" - The Chid"o in Nachal K'dumim says that the letters of the word V'HU, Vov-Hei-Vov-Alef have the numeric value of 18, to allude to the words of the Mishnoh in Pirkei Ovos 5:24, "Ben shmoneh esrei l'chupoh, - A man should marry at the age of eighteen years."

Ch. 21, v. 17: "Asher y'h'yeh vo moom" - The Torah tells us that a Kohein who has a physical blemish should not serve in the Temple. The Sforno equates this with "Ki ein lovo el shaar hamelech bilvush sok (Megilas Esther 4:2), - It is inappropriate to appear in the gate of the king donning sackcloth."

Ch. 21, v. 19: "Shever regel o shever yad" - If the Kohein has a bone fracture in his leg or hand he is disqualified from serving. Similarly if the sacrifice has a bone fracture it is disqualified as mentioned in 22:22. Why does our verse describe the fracture as "Shever regel o shever yad" and in verse 22 as "Shovur?" Possibly, when a person suffers a fracture it is limited to the area of the break, "shever regel o shever yad," since the break can be stabilized and healed. The person is therefore not considered broken, "shovur." However, when an animal suffers a fracture it cannot be stabilized. The animal does not give its leg or arm (front leg) respite. The fracture will never heal and it is not only the particular bone that is broken, but rather, the complete animal is considered fractured, "shovur."

Ch. 22, v. 7: "U'vo hashemesh v'to'heir v'achar yochal min hakodoshim ki lachmo hu" - The Holy Zohar in parshas Metzoro 53a says that this verse tells us that when a person leaves this world, "U'vo hashemesh," and is judged to be righteous, "v'to'heir," he then reaps his reward,"v'achar yochal min hakodoshim."

Perhaps the last words of this verse fit right into this concept. The reward is rightfully his because, "ki lachmo hu," he has won the WAR against his evil inclination, "lachmo" as the source of the word for war - "milchomoh."

Ch. 22, v. 27: "U'miyom hashmini voholoh yeirotzeh" - The Baal haturim says in the name of the Medrash Tanchumoh that the reason the Torah tells us to wait until the newborn animal is eight days old before offering it as a sacrifice is that if it were offered earlier, one might attribute the offering as intended to be served to the objects that were created on that day in the story of creation, as listed in the beginning of parshas Breishis. After a week has elapsed and the cycle of days begins again, this mistaken concept is negated. Perhaps this would serve as an insight into the law that circumcision does not take place before the eighth day of a boy's life.

Ch. 23, v. 2,3: "Mo'a'dei Hashem asher tik'r'u, u'va'yom hashvii Shabbas Shabbosone" - How does Shabbos fit in with the Yomim Tovim that "tik'r'u," - you shall announce?" Rabbi Yonoson Eibeschitz answers that by the Rabbinical Court deciding which day is the beginning of the new month, Shabbos is affected. The sacrifices that are brought in honour of the Holidays affect the sanctity of Shabbos, since otherwise prohibited activities such as slaughtering and burning of the animals body parts, takes place on Yom Tov that falls on a Shabbos.

It is obvious how Shovuos, Rosh Hashonoh, Yom Kippur, Sukos, and Shmini Atzeres affect Shabbos if they coincide with it. However, how does Pesach affect Shabbos? It is only seven days long by Biblical level of law, and thus always has one day coinciding with Shabbos. As well its sacrifices are the same each of its seven days. If so, it seems that there is no difference which day of the week Pesach begins as far as affecting Shabbos. Answer next week bez"H.

Ch. 23, v. 2: "Mikro'ei kodesh" - The Haksav V'hakaboloh translates "mikro'ei" as "invitations." Hashem invites us to His Holiday and we must properly prepare our hearts to absorb the sanctity and unique characteristics each Holiday embodies.

Ch. 23, v. 4: "Eileh moa'dei HASHEM mikro'ei kodesh" - The Sforno says that the Yomim Tovim are called Hashem's Holidays only if they are "mikro'ei KODESH," Holidays of SANCTITY. However, if one involves himself only with ephemeral matters and with indulgence in meat, etc., they are not Hashem's holidays and regarding such holidays the Prophet Yeshayohu has said (1:14), "Chodsheichem umoa'deichem sonoh Nafshi hoyu Olay lotorach nil'eisi n'so, - Your monthly celebrations and your holidays My Soul has detested; they were upon Me a burden: I have tired of bearing them."

The Holy Zohar writes that if one does not invite guests to join him in his Yom Tov meals the Prophet Malochi writes (2:3), "V'zeirisi feresh al pneichem peresh cha'geichem, - I will throw the refuse upon your faces, the refuse of your holidays." He adds that this is not the case with not having guests on Shabbos. For this one receives no punishment.

The Noam M'godim says that this might be alluded to in the words of the mishnoh Beitzoh 5:2, "Ein bein Yom Tov l'Shabbos eloh ocheil nefesh BILVAD." This means that the only halachic difference between Yom Tov and Shabbos is that on Yom Tov one may prepare food for consumption in a manner that would be prohibited on Shabbos, such as cooking. These words can also be translated as, "There is no difference between Yom Tov and Shabbos except 'ocheil nefesh BILVAD,' eating food ALONE," where on Yom Tov one is punished for not having guests and on Shabbos one is not.

Ch. 23, v. 13: "U'minchoso shnei esronim so'les" - The Baa'lei Tosfos ask why we say in the "musof" prayers of Yom Tov, "U'minchosom v'niskeihem kimdubor - And their meal offerings and libations as is stated, shloshoh esronim lapor, u'shnei esronim lo'oyil, v'isorone la'keves, - three tens (of an eifoh) for an ox, two tenths for a ram, and a tenth for a lamb," clearly detailing the volume of flour for each type of animal, while regarding the libation of wine we say, "v'ya'yin k'nisko, - and wine as is appropriate for its libation" without itemizing the different volumes for an ox, ram, and lamb? They answer that since we find an exception in the volume of the meal offering of the lamb accompanying the Omer, which is double the usual amount, "SHNEI ESRONIM SO'LES," it is necessary to enumerate the amounts for each type of animal.

Since there is never an exception to the volume of the libations, half a "hin" for an ox, a third of a "hin" for a ram, and a quarter "hin" for a lamb, it is sufficient to say "v'ya'yin k'nisko, - and wine as is appropriate for its libation."

Ch. 23, v. 16: "Tis'p'ru CHAMISHIM yom" - We know from the words "Sheva Shabbosos" in verse 15 that the total number of days to be counted from the day of bringing the Omer sacrifice is 49 days. Yet our verse says 50 days. Rashi resolves this in two manners, either by saying that we read this as "Sheva Shabbosos t'mimose t'h'yenoh, ad mimochoros haShabbos hashviis tis'p'ru, - Seven full weeks they shall be, UNTIL the morning of the completion of the seventh week shall you count," and then we read, "chamishim yom v'hikravtem minchoh chadoshoh, - on the FIFTIETH day you shall bring a meal offering of the new crop." According to this interpretation the word CHAMISHIM is ORDINAL and not CARDINAL.

Rashi offers a second interpretation. "AD mimochoros haShabbos hashviis tis'p'ru, - UNTIL (and not including) the morning after the seventh week you shall count. "Chamishim yom, - with that day (that you don't count) you have fifty days." The words CHAMISHIM YOM are dangling, "mikro m'soros," as if they would appear right after the word "hashviis," describing it as day number fifty. Rashi prefers this explanation because it leaves the word CHAMISHIM in the CARDINAL form.

However, the Rosh in his commentary on the final chapter of the gemara P'sochim says that it is common for the Torah to round off an amount which ends with a nine to the next ten. Thus the intention of fifty days is actually 49 days. Similarly, he says that this explains the total of "Kol nefesh l'veis Yaakov habo'oh Mitraymoh SHIVIM" (Breishis 46:27), while in reality there were only 69 people who descended to Egypt. As well, the Torah says "ARBO'IM ya'kenu" (Dvorim 25:3), while in reality only 39 lashes are administered.



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