CHAMISHOH MI YODEI'A - FIVE QUESTIONS ON THE WEEKLY SEDRAH - PARSHAS NITZOVIM-VA'YEILECH 5771 - BS"D
1) The only time we separate Nitzovim from Va'yeilech is when there is a Shabbos between Yom Kippur and Succos of the upcoming year. It would seem logical to always have Nitzovim and Va'yeilech joined as they total only seventy verses.
2) Ch. 29, v. 9: "A'tem nitzovim" - The word normally used for "standing" is "omdim." However, our verse says "nitzovim."
3) Ch. 31, v. 9: "HaKohanim bnei Levi HANOSIM es arone bris Hashem" - Compare this verse with 31:25 where it says "haL'viim NOSEI arone bris Hashem."
4) Ch. 31, v. 19: "V'atoh kisvu lochem es haSHIROH hazos" - Why is the feminine form SHIROH used rather than the masculine form SHIR?
5) Ch. 31, v. 27: "Hein b'o'de'ni chai" - This is one of the ten "kal vo'chomers" in the Torah. If you were rebellious against Hashem during my life time, all the more so will you be rebellious after my death. The gemara Sanhedrin 37a relates that there were wayward people living in the neighbourhood of R' Zeira. When R' Zeira died, they repented, saying that as long as R' Zeira was alive his merits protected them against retribution. After his death, they discontinued their bad ways, fearing punishment from Heaven. According to this story, isn't Moshe's kal vo'chomer refuted? During Moshe's lifetime people might have been rebellious against Hashem, with the hope that Moshe's merit would save them. However, after his death, they may not sin for fear of retribution."
If we were to join Nitzovim and Vayeilech and split two larger parshios earlier in the year, our final Shabbos reading of the year would be Ki Sovo, which contains the "tochochoh," admonition, with which we do not want to end the year. (See Tosfos Megiloh 31b and B.B. 88b).
Its connotation is "standing steadfast" with permanence, similar to "matzeivoh," a permanent monument. Moshe is telling the bnei Yisroel that he will pass on, as will future leaders as well. However, "a'tem nitzovim," the Jewish nation, will endure for all time. (Rabbi S.R. Hirsch)
HANOSIM means "those who are now carrying," while NOSEI means "carriers," those who carry on a regular basis. The regular carriers were the L'viim, while the Kohanim carried the Holy Ark at this special occasion when Moshe was giving over the guidelines of the covenant and his farewell address. (Rabbi S.R. Hirsch)
We find on two other occasions that the Kohanim carried the Holy Ark. One was when they crossed the Jordan River and entered Eretz Yisroel and when they circled the city of Jericho before capturing it. Perhaps a common thread can be drawn in these three occurrences. Each was a situation where a miracle took place. At the assembly of all the bnei Yisroel when Moshe said "A'tem nitzovim" the Ibn Ezra on the words "lifnei Hashem Elokeichem" says that "in front of Hashem" means that they all gathered in front of the Holy Ark. This was indeed a great miracle to have everyone be able to fit in front of the Holy Ark, again a case of "miut hamachazik es hamruboh." At the time of the crossing of the Jordan River the bnei Yisroel experienced the miracle of the river splitting (Yehoshua 3:3), and when the bnei Yisroel circled around the city of Jericho the miracle of its walls sinking into the ground took place (Yehoshua 6:6). Perhaps this is the intention of the Sforno d.h. "hanosim" where he points out that the Kohanim were the carriers of the Holy Ark in this instance rather than the L'viim because "shenosu b'eis his'cha'deish NES bo," - they carried at the time that a miracle would be wrought through the Holy Ark.
A) Possibly, this can be explained with a Tosfos on the gemara P'sochim 116b, d.h. "v'nomar, or v'ne'emar." He says that shiroh being a female form of song indicates that there will be a future song as well, similar to a woman who goes through difficulties in childbirth numerous times. So also shiroh connotes a song of praise of being saved from a difficulty, which is not the final difficulty. However, shir, the masculine form, connotes a song indicating a final redemption.
Similarly, here, Hashem has commanded us to write the song of Ha'azinu, (or to write the complete Torah, see Ha'amek Dovor by the N'tziv), yet He wants us to realize that the written Torah is not complete without the oral Torah. Hence, write this SHIROH, an expression of a song that has another song to follow, the Torah Sheh'b'al Peh. Indeed, it is the custom when bringing a new sefer Torah to a shul or beis medrash, that a speaker discusses Torah Sheh'b'al Peh to indicate that there is more to the Torah than just the written scroll. (n.l.)
B) Another explanation for SHIR being used for a final redemption and SHIROH being used for a temporary redemption can be found in the Medrash Shir Hashirim 1:37, on the words, "Sh'choroh ani v'novoh bnos Yerusholayim." The feminine word SHIROH connotes a song of praise for being rescued and able to reside in Eretz Yisroel, the land of the seven nations, a tenth of the seventy nations of the world. This is similar to a woman who receives a tenth of her father's properties upon his death, where there is no will stating otherwise. In the future, when the Jews will be exalted above the seventy nations of the world, they will give praise with SHIR, in the masculine form, similar to a man who inherits everything.
C) There is also another very interesting explanation in the Eitz Yosef on this verse in Shir Hashirim. He says that all redemptions prior to the final one have a woman involved, so the feminine form, SHIROH, is used. The final redemption will be without the involvement of a woman, so the masculine form, SHIR, is used.
The Maharsh"o on this gemara asks this. The Sefer Minchas Yehudah answers that we find by the incident of the golden calf, that some of the b'nei Yisroel said (Shmos 32:1), "Ki zeh Moshe Ho'ish......" Rashi explains that the soton showed them a vision of Moshe seemingly dead in the sky. They then produced a golden calf. We now understand the kal vo'chomer. Moshe is saying, "When I was alive and you thought I was dead, you sinned with the golden calf. After I will truly be dead, you will surely be rebellious."
Another answer is offered by Rabbi Zvi Irenstein zt"l of Lvov. He says that there are two types of sinners. One denies the Torah completely, and casually transgresses its precepts without the slightest feeling of guilt. Another type of person creates all sorts of leniencies, and accusing the Rabbonim of not truly understanding Moshe's intent in the Torah. This latter sinner claims that if Moshe were alive, he would say that many of the things being forbidden by the Shulchan Oruch are actually permitted. The latter category of sinner could only function after Moshe's death. While Moshe was alive, he would have refuted this type of sinner's false claims. The first category of sinner could exist even during Moshe's lifetime. Now we understand the kal v'chomer. Moshe said, "During my lifetime, you were rebellious," referring to the total denier. "Surely after my death, the second category of sinner will come into being."
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