CHAMISHOH MI YODEI'A - FIVE QUESTIONS ON THE WEEKLY SEDRAH - PARSHIOS VA'YAKHEIL-P'KUDEI 5772 - BS"D
1) Ch. 35, v. 1,4: "Kol adas Yisroel" - Were donations accepted from the "eirev rav" for the Mishkon?
2) Ch. 35, v. 2: "Sheishes yomim ...... u'va'yom hashvii yi'h'yeh lochem kodesh," v. 5: "K'chu mei'itchem trumoh" - Here the Torah first mentions Shabbos and then the building of the Mishkon, the reverse order of parshas Ki Siso, where Shabbos is mentioned after the command to build the Mishkon (31:13).
3) Ch. 39, v. 25: "Va'yitnu es hapaamonim b'soch horimonim …… b'soch horimonim" - How were the bells and pomegranates placed on the hem of garment?
4) Ch. 39, v. 28: "V'es paa'rei hamigbo'ose" - What is "paa'rei?"
5) Ch. 39, v. 32: "Vatheichel kol avodas haMishkon" - And all the work of the Mishkon was complete - The work was completed near the end of the month Kislev. However, the assembly took place on the 1st day of Nison. Why the 3 month wait?
These words in verses 1 and 4 exclude taking donations from the "eirev rav," the mixed multitudes of Egyptians who left Egypt with the bnei Yisroel. They caused the bnei Yisroel to sin with the golden calf, so Hashem did not want their donations for the Mishkon. (Holy Zohar)
Therefore, before the sin of the golden calf the mitzvoh of keeping Shabbos holy was predicated on the creation of the world (Shmos 21:11). This could include the eirev rav, as all of humanity relates to the creation of the world in which it exists. After the incident of the golden calf Hashem wanted to exclude them from their connection to Shabbos and the reason given in the second rendition of the Ten Commandments was that the bnei Yisroel were enslaved in Egypt and Hashem took them out of Egypt (Dvorim 5:15). Therefore our verse excludes the "eirev rav," who were not slaves. (Tiferes Y'honoson)
The Chasam Sofer answers that before the sin of the golden calf there was no need to mention Shabbos first. However, once the sin had taken place an atonement was needed. This could be afforded through the building of the Mishkon as mentioned in the M.R. Shmos chapter 51 and Medrash Tanchuma chapter 8. This would make the donations of some people tainted with a personal agenda of gaining forgiveness. Hashem wanted everyone to be able to give donations for the Mishkon with no ulterior motive. The gemara Shabbos 118b says: Rabbi Chia the son of Abbo says in the name of Rabbi Yochonon, "Whoever keeps the Shabbos properly, even if he sins with idol worship as the generation of Enosh sinned, he is forgiven, as it is written in Yeshayohu 56:2, 'Ashrei ENOSH ...... shomer Shabbos MEICHAL'LO.' Do not read 'meichal'lo,' but rather 'mochul lo,' - he is forgiven."
Here Hashem mentions Shabbos first, after the sin of the golden calf has taken place, so that people will consecrate and keep the Shabbos, thus attaining atonement for their idol worship to the golden calf. Now they can donate to the Mishkon purely for the sake of Hashem.
The Chasam Sofer adds that we similarly find that the Rabbis have instituted two sets of sounding the shofar on Rosh Hashonoh, the "sitting" set and afterwards the "standing" set. Since the main blowing is the "standing" set, why did the Rabbis institute the "sitting" set earlier? He answers that since the blowing of the shofar arouses great mercy in Hashem and brings Him to judge us favourably (See Zohar on Vayikra 23:24.), our intention during the sounding of the shofar would very likely be tinged with our interest in our personal benefit of receiving a favourable judgment. The Rabbis therefore instituted that first there be a set of shofar blasts that will arouse Hashem to mercy and then we can blow the second set purely with the intention of fulfilling Hashem's mitzvoh, "Rachamono omar 'tiku'" (gemara Rosh Hashonoh 16a).
This is the well-known disagreement between Rashi and the Ramban and Rosh whether the bells were placed in the space between the cloth pomegranates, or actually inside them. Our verse says "b'soch horimonim" twice. The Rosh, based on his opinion that the bells were placed INTO the pomegranates, offers that the repetition teaches us that the bells must be placed into the pomegranates before they are attached to the bottom of the "m'il," and that they must remain their after being attached. Yo'ir, a commentator on Targum Onkelos has a third opinion, that there were both bells inside the pomegranates and also between them.
This could well explain the repetition of "b'soch horimonim" of our verse. (Nirreh li)
Rashi says that this is a descriptive word, "the glory of the turbans". Rav Hai Gaon says that it means buttons on the top of their turbans.
Hashem wanted to have the Mishkon dedicated on the 1st of Nison, the day that our Patriarch Yitzchok was born. He was a sanctified human offering to Hashem, and the Mishkon likewise serves as the holy location where sacrifices are brought. (Rabbeinu Zecharioh)
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