Oroh V'Simchoh

Meshech Chochmoh
on the Weekly Parsha

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by Zvi Akiva Fleisher

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OROH V'SIMCHOH - MESHECH CHOCHMOH ON PARSHAS BMIDBAR 5767 BS"D

Ch. 1, v. 53: "V'haL'viim yachanu soviv l'Mishkan ho'eidus" The area occupied by the L'viim is called "machaneh L'vioh." People who have certain types of "tumoh" may not enter this area, and if they are already in it, they are to be sent out (see Bmidbar 5:2). Included in this list is a "baal keri." If so, how did the L'viim have marital relations with their wives? The Meshech Chochmoh answers that within "machaneh L'vioh" there were two areas with different halachic statuses. The area closer to the Mishkon was restricted as mentioned above, but there was a second area that was outside the inner one that had no such restriction. It was in this area that the homes of the L'viim were placed.

Ch. 2, v. 20: "V'olov matteh Menasheh" The R"I in the Moshav Z'keinim asks, "Why by the other tribes who were mentioned after the "degel" head does it say "v'hachonim olov," and here the word "v'hachonim" is skipped?" 1) He answers that this indicates that Menasheh and Efrayim are to be viewed as one, as they are both descendants of Yoseif.

2) Alternatively, he answers that this indicates that for all other tribes there were individual rivers flowing into their parcel of land, but Menasheh and Efrayim shared one.

3) The Rokei'ach answers that all other tribes had bodies of water separating their land portions while Efrayim and Menasheh had nothing separating theirs from each other. It seems that this is indicated by translating "v'olov" quite literally as "and UPON him" since these two tribes were physically closer to each other than any other tribes were.

4) The Meshech Chochmoh answers that the verse is indicating that eventually Menasheh will surpass Efrayim in population, hence the word "v'olov." This will take place when counting the new generation of bnei Yisroel who will enter Eretz Yisroel, a fulfillment of "v'yidgu lorov b'kerev ho'oretz" (Breishis 48:16). In our parsha Efrayim's population was 40,500 against Menasheh's 32,200, while in parshas Pinchos, Efrayim's population was 32,500 against Menasheh's 52,700.

Ch. 3, v. 39: "Kol p'ku'dei haL'viim ...... kol zochor mi'ben chodesh vomaloh shnayin v'esrim o'lef" - The census of all the other tribes was from the age of twenty years and older. The count of the L'viim was from the age of a month and older. Yet the L'viim had the smallest population of all the tribes. Ten explanations for this phenomenon are offered:

1) Some of the L'viim had the responsibility to carry the holiest of the Mishkon vessels. If they were not treated with proper respect it would bring about their death. (Rashi on Breishis 29:34) Some raise a question on this explanation, as the counting in our parsha is before the tasks were alotted. However, we can say that because the future held this awesome responsibility, it was an indication that the L'viim were on an elevated level, closer to Hashem than any other tribe. Therefore any other shortcoming in their spiritual responsibilities were also dealt with harshly, as is derived from T'hilim 50:3, "usvivov nisaroh m'ode."

2) The population explosion of the bnei Yisroel in Egypt was nothing short of miraculous. The Torah says, "kaa'sher y'anu oso kein yirbeh," - as they pained the bnei Yisroel, so did they multiply. The increase in the number of bnei Yisroel was proportionate to their suffering. Since the tribe of Levi was not subjugated to slavery, as per M.R. Shmos 5:16, they did not multiply in a miraculous manner. (Ramban)

3) Our patriarch Yaakov expressed himself with negative terms towards Shimon and Levi (Breishis 49:5,6,7). This caused a limitation in their growth. Shimon's limitation takes place at the later counting (Bmidbar 26:14). (Ramban)

4) The L'viim were the spiritual leaders of the bnei Yisroel from the earliest days in Egypt. Their total immersion in Torah weakened them physically, "Torah ma'teshes kocho shel odom" (gemara Sanhedrin 26b). Because they were physically weak they reproduced in a limited manner. (Tzror Hamor)

5) The need for the bnei Yisroel to be a large population was so that when they would enter Eretz Yisroel they would occupy a large area so that they would not be overpowered by wild animals, "pen tirbeh o'lecho chayas haso'deh" (Dvorim 7:22). Sinc the L'viim would not inherit a large parcel of land and in the main would reside close to the Beis Hamikdosh, there was no need to have a large number of L'viim. (Abarbenel)

6) Since the L'viim were to reside around the Mishkon compound, they were similar to the angels that descended onto Har Sinai at the time of the giving of the Torah. (This is well understood according to the explanation of the Ibn Ezra on Shmos 19:13 that the sanctity of Har Sinai was transferred to the Mishkon.) Since the number of angels who descended onto Har Sinai was 22,000, as per the verse in T'hilim 68:18, "Rechev Elokim ribosayim alfei shinon," so too, the number of L'viim in the desert was 22,000. (Kabbalistic writings)

***7) The gemara Sotoh 12a relates that Amrom, the recognized leader of the bnei Yisroel divorced his wife rather than reproduce and have his children thrown into the river. All others followed suit and did the same. "All others" means all from the tribe of Levi only, as they did not have the slave mentality. They were not ready to attempt to evade the Egyptians by giving birth in the fields and leaving their children there, as did the rest of the bnei Yisroel. They remained divorced from their wives for many years and therefore had a limited population. Amrom took back his wife shortly after he divorced her because of the prophecy of his daughter Miriam, as related in the above-mentioned gemara. (Ohr Hachaim Hakodosh and Kli Yokor)

8) If the L'viim were to multiply as greatly as the other tribes, when they would all live in Eretz Yisroel the L'viim would become an unbearable burden upon the other tribes, as they are involved in serving Hashe and are supported by everyone else. As well, more or larger parcels of land would have to be cut out of the other tribes' inheritance to supply them with land for housing. (MESHECH CHOCHMOH) This opinion is mentioned in the Kli Yokor and he resoundingly disagrees with it.

9) Whatever is more dear, its development is more complicated and more difficult to come to fruition. The tribe of Levi, the spiritually chosen of Hashem were therefore a limited group. (Haa'meik Dovor)

10) Rashi on Bmidbar 26:5 says that the Canaanites claimed that the bnei Yisroel were not of pure stock, reasoning that if the Egyptians were masters over the men, surely they lorded over their wives. The extreme population explosion of the bnei yisroel clearly counters this claim since the gemara Avodoh Zoroh 54b says that if one were to commit adultery with a woman, by right the woman should not get pregnant, as a sin was committed. However, Hashem allowed the world to proceed by the "laws of nature" and it is possible to b