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Torah Attitude: Parashas Shemini: "Altogether" Righteous

March 20, 2003

Summary

Why were the sons of Aaron killed when bringing an offering? Their mistake was so minute that the main reason for their deaths is difficult to pinpoint. A student may not make halachic decisions when his teacher is around. When dealing with fire the sons should have been extra careful to follow standard procedure instead of inventing new ways of serving Gd. A Kohen should not drink a cup of wine before performing his duties. Were Nadav and Avihu killed because of their own sin or the sin of their father? Why would the Torah say that Gd is "without iniquity"? A human judge is not able to tailor-make the punishment to fit all of the circumstances of the crime. Gd takes absolutely everything into consideration when He passes judgment on us. The Torah does not permit us to watch passively while our fellow Jews go astray. There was no one "real" reason for the death of Aaron's sons. All things were considered by Gd before He passed judgment. The more righteous people that we include in our inner circle, the greater the protection this "mutual insurance" may provide us.

The death of Aarons sons

In this weeks Torah portion we read: "The sons of Aaron, Nadav and Avihu, each took his fire pan, they put fire in them and placed incense upon it; and they brought before Gd an alien fire that He had not commanded them. A fire came forth from before Gd and consumed them, and they died before Gd" (Vayikra 10:1-2). The Torah does not say exactly why the sons of Aaron were killed. Our sages mention a number of different reasons. If there are different reasons, we may wonder what the real reason was for their death.

Minute mistake

Rav Dessler explains that there were a number of flaws in their conduct, which lead to the death of Aarons sons. However, their mistake was so minute compared to the behaviour of most that the main reason for their deaths is difficult to pinpoint.

Not ask Moses

The Talmud (Eruvin 63a) says that the sons of Aaron died only because they gave a legal decision in the presence of Moses, their Master. In other words, they made a decision about the laws of the Torah before asking Moses if they were correct. Even though their intentions were beyond reproach, they should have asked Moses, as a student may not make halachic decisions when his teacher is around.

Alien fire

Other sages say that it was the actual bringing of an "alien" fire that led to their deaths. Especially since they were literally dealing with "fire" by bringing an offering in the holiest part of the Temple, the sons should have been extra careful to follow standard procedure instead of inventing new ways of serving Gd.

Drinking wine

The Midrash says that it was because they were drinking wine before they entered the Temple to bring their fire offering that caused their deaths. This is why the Torah brings immediately afterwards that a Kohen should not drink a cup of wine before performing his duties.

Aarons punishment?

Rashi (10:12) quotes the Midrash that when Aaron created the golden calf, he was punished with the loss of all of his children. However, Moses prayed and invoked Gds mercy, so that the punishment was reduced to the loss of two of his children. But why should Aarons sons die due to the conduct of their father? Further, were Nadav and Avihu killed because of their own sin or the sin of their father?

"Without iniquity"

The Torah refers to Gd as "perfect in His work, for all His paths are justice; a Gd of faith without iniquity, righteous and fair is He" (Devarim 32:4). Why would the Torah say that Gd is "without iniquity"? Surely, there are better ways to refer to the attributes of Gd?

"Altogether righteous"

In Psalms, we learn that "The judgments of Gd are true, altogether righteous" (Psalm 19:10). To understand how Gds judgments are altogether righteous, we may compare to the courts run by humans. A human judge can only distribute justice for the accused in his court at the time and judge the accused for the conduct prior to the offense. He is not able to consider the effect the judgment will have on everyone associated with the accused. Nor can he deliberately delay the punishment. A human judge is not able to tailor-make the punishment to fit all of the circumstances of the crime, the criminal, the victim and everyone and everything associated with all of them.

Gd is in no hurry

On the other hand, when Gd sits in judgment in the Heavenly Court, He is in no hurry to mete out punishment. The Torah teaches us that one of the thirteen attributes of Gds mercy is "slow to anger" (Shemos 34:6). The Talmud tells us that one of the reasons that Gd is slow to anger is because He waits to see if the person will repent and try to correct the mistake. Rashi explains that whereas Gd has unlimited time to see that justice is done, human judges do not know what tomorrow may bring. Whereas, all options are open to Gd, human judges are limited in their perceptions and abilities to judge others. Gd takes absolutely everything into consideration when He passes judgment on us, and that is why His judgments are "altogether righteous". Every judgment is rendered by Gd in exactly the right measure for each recipient.

Brothers' keepers

In the Talmud (Shabbos 54b), we learn that someone in a position to protest a wrongdoing who does nothing is also incriminated for the conduct that follows. We are our brothers keepers. As the Talmud (Shavuoth 39a) says: All Jews are responsible for each other. The Torah does not permit us to watch passively while our brothers go astray.

The bigger picture

Aaron made the golden calf reluctantly to try to buy some time, hoping that Moses would return at any moment. When Hur tried to stop the mob from making the golden calf, they killed him. Aaron did not want his blood on the hands of his fellow Jews as well. Nevertheless, Aaron should not have participated in making the golden calf and he was punished with the loss of his children. However, Gd would not have allowed Aarons sons to be killed unless there was something wrong in their conduct that led to their deaths. When Gd gave judgment for Aarons sons to die, Gd had the bigger picture in mind, including all of the details of Aarons conduct and his sons conduct.

Unfortunately, the judgments of human judges may sometimes cause greater iniquity than they resolve. For example, the family of a criminal sent to jail may be put on the street through no wrongdoing on their part. So while the criminal is punished, so are many others who are totally innocent of the crime.

Although Aaron suffered greatly upon hearing of the death of his sons, and the mistakes of his sons cost them their lives, there was no "iniquity" which resulted from Gd judgment. Both the conduct of Aaron and the conduct of his sons were considered. There is no contradiction between the different reasons given for the death of Aarons sons. There was no one "real" reason for the death of Aaron's sons. All things were considered by Gd before He passed judgment.

Mutual insurance

Rav Simcha Zissel of Kelm (the Alter) teaches us to surround ourselves with as many good friends as possible. That way, if, Gd forbid, we deserve to receive a punishment, that will also be hurtful to our friends, then the punishment may be varied in the merit of our friends. Since Gds judgments are "altogether" righteous, the more righteous people that we include in our inner circle, the greater the protection this "mutual insurance" may provide us.

These words were based on a talk given by Rabbi Avraham Kahn, the Rosh Yeshiva and Founder of Yeshivas Keser Torah in Toronto.


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