shabbos candles

The Shabbos Weekly
Halachos Series on Hilchos Shabbos

shabbos candles

Published by
Pirchei Shoshanim

A Project of
The Shema Yisrael Torah Network

Based on the Shiurim Given by

Rabbi Dovid
Ostroff, shlita

developed from the Chabura of the
Pirchei Shoshanim Shulchan Aruch Learning Project

These Halachos were shown by Rabbi Ostroff to
HaGaon HaRav Moshe Sternbuch, shlita


Questions for the Week of Parshas Achrei Mos

Is it a mitzvah for the participants hearing the kiddush to partake of the kiddush wine during the day-kiddush (kidushah rabah)?

The Rav of Brisk is known to have said that all participants must partake of the kiddush wine during the ‘day’ kiddush. His reasoning was that since drinking of the kiddush wine demonstrates the importance of the day meal, therefore all participants are obligated to do so. [1]

Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach however said that most opinions are lenient and therefore the participants need not partake of the wine. Rav Sternbuch adds that although it is not essential, it is a mitzvah to partake if possible.

Can fruit be substituted for bread or cake (erev Pesach)?

It is a mitzvah to have bread (lechem mishne) at all three meals on Shabbos [2]. Furthermore, if one partakes of more than three meals on Shabbos, it is a mitzvah to have two whole breads at each meal. In other words, the lechem mishne is not confined only to the first three meals. [3]

If it is difficult to obtain two whole breads for the third meal, one should at least have one whole bread.

Fruit cannot be a substitute for bread or mezonos for the first two Shabbos meals. [4] Only if a person is ill and weak and cannot wait for bread or mezonos, fruit (preferably cooked) [5] may be substituted as the meal after kiddush – and even that only for the day meal. [6]

Is seudah shl’ishis (the third meal) different from the other meals?

Seudah shl’ishis differs from the other Shabbos meals as after eating two full meals, a person might not have the desire to eat an additional extensive meal. The Rishonim [7] formed various opinions regarding the requirements.

1) Two whole breads.

2) One whole bread.

3) Mezonos - food comprised of one of the five grains and whose b’racha is mezonos. [8]

4) Meat, fish and any side dish such as potatoes rice etc. but not fruit.

5) Fruit.

One should not rely on the lenient opinions unless satiated. Accordingly, one should always wash and eat bread for seudah shl’ishis.

When the day before Pesach falls on Shabbos and bread cannot be eaten after minchah, one may rely on the opinions that hold that the meal can comprise meat, fish and other dishes such as potatoes etc. [9] As for eating matzo ashira (matzo kneaded with fruit juices) and kneidelach on erev Pesach, one must ask one’s Rav.

Must one recite a shehakol on drinks consumed at a day kiddush?

This question is not unique to Shabbos, rather it applies to any time wine or grape juice is consumed.

The b’racha recited over wine or grape juice - boreh p’ri hagofen – includes all drinks that are on the table. [10] Some say that it includes drinks that one intends to drink even though not present on the table. [11]

The reason being that wine is considered a superior beverage and all other drinks are inferior to it. Accordingly, if one did not drink wine at the kiddush (someone else recited kiddush), when one drinks a different beverage one is required to recite a b’racha.  This is because only the actual ‘drinking’ includes other drinks and if one did not partake of the wine one does need to recite a b’racha over other beverages.

How much wine must be consumed in order to include other beverages in the b’racha?

Sipping the wine is insufficient and in order to ‘include’ other beverages one must drink at least a cheek-full of wine. If the wine was only sipped, one cannot recite a shehakol over the other beverages, as there is a safek (doubt) whether it is sufficient and one should either recite a shehakol over a piece of herring or such, or hear someone else recite a shehakol and have in mind to be yotzeh with his b’racha. [12]

Summary: one who drinks a sufficient amount of wine or grape juice does not need to make a b’racha over coffee, tea or Coke that are on the table (when the b’racha is recited) or that one had the intention of drinking. It is advisable to avoid sipping from wine when one intends drinking other beverages unless other foods are present that require a shehakol.

[1] See the SS”K 50:9 and footnote 17, tikunim umilui’im ibid.

[2] See the SS”K 55 footnote 1 whether it is a mitzvah mid’oraisso or mid’rabanan.

[3] Rama in simon 291:4.

[4] Simon 273:5.

[5] See the SS”K 54 footnote 86.

[6] M”B simon 273:26 and SS”K 54:24.

[7] See the Be’er HaGolah simon 291:5.

[8] Shulchan Aruch HaRav simon 291:7.

[9] Shulchan Aruch HaRav ibid and M”B 291:25.

[10] Simon 174:2.

[11] M”B 174:3 cites the Shulchan Aruch HaRav and R”M Banet.

[12] Bi’ur Halacha simon 174:2 “yayin”.


Food For Thought

When reciting al hagefen for wine must one recite boreh nefashos for other beverages?

How should one hold the challos for lechem mishne?

From which part of the challa should one eat after the b’racha?

Can frozen challa be used for lechem mishne?

Answers coming be"H next week.

Erev Pesach

There are only two Mitzvos Aseh (positive mitzvos) whose abstention involves the severe punishment of karet (untimely death from heaven) – B’ris milah and korban Pesach.

B’nei Yisrael did not merit being exiled from Egypt and in order to be worthy Hashem assigned two mitzvos that involved mesirus nefesh – self sacrifice to the point of death. Both involve blood and both could lead to death. There is a small chance of dying from the b’ris, as the possuk says òìéê äåøâðå ëì äéåí – we die for You each day, which Chazal interpret to mean the b’ris. Tying the lamb to the bedposts involved self sacrifice as the lambs were worshiped by the Egyptians and B’nei Yisrael were afraid to the point of death from this action.

The B’nei Yisoschor explains that since these two mitzvos merited the foundation of our nation by catalyzing the redemption and therefore abstention from performing these great two mitzvos revokes the raison d’etre of one’s life and thus the punishment is karet.

May we merit bringing the korban Pesach already this year.

For a printed version, click here.



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Note:  The purpose of this series is intended solely for the clarification of the topics discussed and not to render halachic decisions. It is intended to heighten everyone's awareness of important practical questions which do arise on this topic.  One must consult with a proper halachic authority in order to receive p'sak.