shabbos candles

The Shabbos Weekly
Halachos Series on Hilchos Shabbos

shabbos candles

Published by
Pirchei Shoshanim

A Project of
The Shema Yisrael Torah Network

Based on the Shiurim Given by

Rabbi Dovid
Ostroff, shlita

developed from the Chabura of the
Pirchei Shoshanim Shulchan Aruch Learning Project

These Halachos were shown by Rabbi Ostroff to
HaGaon HaRav Moshe Sternbuch, shlita


Questions for the Week of Parshas Emor

Must seudah sh値ishis be eaten after mincha?

This question was pertinent this year when erev Pesach was on Shabbos and eating bread was only permitted in the morning. The usual seudah sh値ishis with bread was not possible after mincha. Likewise, one who prefers to eat seudah sh値ishis at home and go to shul to learn for the remainder of the day?

The Tur writes [1] that the time for seudah sh値ishis is not before mincha gedola, which is 6.5 hours into the day. [2] The Beis Yosef writes that this view is shared by many Rishonim although there are those who say that seudah sh値ishis may be eaten in the morning.

This does not mean that one must actually daven mincha beforehand, as we will soon see. Therefore, splitting the morning seudah, i.e. bentching, waiting a short while and washing for bread again, is not a viable solution, but this issue should be dealt with before the next time erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, which is five years.

Well, what about davening mincha beforehand?

The Rambam depicts (30:10) the schedule of tzaddikim on Shabbos: 徹ne davens shacharis and mussaf in shul and goes home to eat the second meal. One then goes back to shul and learns until mincha. One then davens mincha and eats seudah sh値ishis.

The Tur understands that one must daven mincha before seudah sh値ishis and so do other Rishonim. [3] Rabeinu Tam however preferred that seudah sh値ishis be eaten before mincha as he held that water may not be consumed between mincha and ma誕riv for kabalistic reasons. The poskim explain that he was referring to river water only and therefore the custom to first daven mincha prevails.

The Kaf Hachaim [4] cites many poskim who hold that one should preferably eat seudah sh値ishis after mincha. The Ari HaKadosh held the same. If it is difficult for one to first daven mincha, one may first eat seudah sh値ishis [5] and then daven mincha. [6]

Must one eat bread at seudah sh値ishis?

We mentioned in the past that optimally one must wash and eat bread for seudah sh値ishis. [7] When one is satiated to the point that he will not enjoy the meal one may eat other foods, preferably from the five grains.

Should the challos be covered at seudah sh値ishis as well?

We should first understand why the challos need be covered and then discuss seudah sh値ishis.

The Tur [8] cites two reasons for covering the challos.

The first is a Yerushalmi that says that challos should not be embarrassed during kiddush. One usually recites hamotzi before hagefen being that wheat - chitah is mentioned in the possuk eretz chitah us弛rah gefen before the gefen. It is only when the kiddush is recited over wine that the boreh p池i hagefen is recited before the hamotzi and since the b池acha is out of order the challos must be covered.

The second is to imitate the manna, which was covered beneath and above with dew. We therefore place a cloth beneath (the table cloth) and above the challos.

The nafka mina (difference) between the two reasons is when the b池acha of wine is not recited prior to hamotzi, that is when kiddush is not recited. Since we are not accustomed to make kiddush at seudah sh値ishis, only the reason of the manna applies and not the reason of wine.

Consequently one l団hatchila should cover the challos at seudah sh値ishis as well, [9] but apparently custom is not so.

How long after sunset may one begin eating seudah sh値ishis, if at all?

Preferably one must commence eating before sunset. [10] Rav Sternbuch shlita relates that the Chazon Ish would not permit household members to wash after sunset and yet the Brisker Rav permitted washing up to 10 minutes after sunset.

One should definitely try to wash beforehand for various reasons. One is because it is a mitzvah to eat the three Shabbos meals during the actual Shabbos day, based on the possuk "ichluhu hayom" - three meals must be eaten on this day. [11]

[1] Simon 291:2.

[2] The day starts either from alos hashachar or from neitz hachamah. These times can be found on Jewish calendars.

[3] The Darchei Moshe 3 cites the Hagahos Mordechai, the Hagahos Maimoni and others.

[4] Simon 291:15.

[5] There are certain complications when it is already mincha ketana, i.e. 2.5 hours before nightfall and a rav should be asked.

[6] See the SS葱 56:3. The Aruch HaShulchan in simon 291:4 says that according to kabala, each meal is to be eaten after its respective prayer, i.e. the night meal after ma誕riv etc.

[7] Simon 291:5.

[8] Simon 271:9.

[9] See also M韮 simon 271:41 that the nafka mina applies when one makes kiddush on the challos.

[10] M韮 simon 299:2. SS葱 56:4 and footnotes 16-17.

[11] See M韮 simon 267:5 and SS葱 56 footnote 15.


Food For Thought

May one perform melacha before reciting havdala?

Are women obliged to hear havdala?

May women recite havdala for themselves?

What may one eat or drink before havdala?

Answers coming be"H next week.

Vort on the Parsha

The possuk states 鍍hat you shall call them holy days those are My festivals. The Seforno points out that Hashem is telling us that if we sanctify our festivals and gather people for holy matters and they rejoice with Hashem, the festivals are Hashem痴. But if one merely utilizes the festivals for physical pleasures and everyday activities, they are not Hashem痴 festivals, only ours, which He despises.

Rav Sternbuch shlita points out that Chol HaMoed is called mikra kodesh which is similar to the Yom Tov itself, and as such it too must merit a degree of holiness to be worthy to be called Hashem痴 festivals.

For a printed version, click here.



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Note:  The purpose of this series is intended solely for the clarification of the topics discussed and not to render halachic decisions. It is intended to heighten everyone's awareness of important practical questions which do arise on this topic.  One must consult with a proper halachic authority in order to receive p'sak.