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Weekly Shabbos Halacha Series
Halachos Series on Hilchos Shabbos

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Published by
Pirchei Shoshanim

A Project of
The Shema Yisrael Torah Network

Written by

Rabbi Dovid
Ostroff, shlita

 

These Halachos were shown by Rabbi Ostroff to
HaGaon HaRav Moshe Sternbuch, shlita

 

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Questions for the Week of Parshas Ki Seitzei

 

Hilchos B'rachos part X

Having In Mind Cont.

In the previous shiur we dealt with two marginal cases, namely having explicit intent to include all foods with a similar bíracha, in which case the bíracha is all-inclusive, and having intent in respect of a single item, in which case a new bíracha must be recited for an additional item.

We will now discuss a bíracha made with no specific intent to include or exclude other food items. We will name this type of bíracha Ďstamí.

If one recited a bíracha over an apple, may one eat another apple even though there was no original thought of eating another one?

On the table

One who recited a sítam bíracha and additional foods relating to a similar bíracha were ďin front of himĒ, they are included in the bíracha. ďIn front of himĒ means that food is placed in a location where a person habitually eats. [1]

The logic behind this halacha is that since one did not limit oneself, one is open to more items that might customarily come oneís way.

What if the food is in the refrigerator, not on the table?

It all depends on oneís eating habits.

If for example a person takes an apple from the refrigerator and eats it while walking around the house and when finishing the apple, wants another apple, it will be included in the bíracha, because the refrigerator in this case is compared to a plate of fruit on the table.

The idea is that the person did not limit oneself to a particular item.

If thatís the case, one will always have everything included in the bíracha.

A sítam bíracha includes items that are commonly consumed at the same setting, such as other items on the table or in the refrigerator or food closet. It does not include items that would not normally be eaten at that setting. [2]

Does a sítam bíracha include a different type of food?

Moshe took an apple from the fruit bowl, recited a boreh píri hoíeitz and upon finishing the apple he took a pear and ate it without reciting a new bíracha.

Moshe was correct because the pear was Ďbefore himí when he recited the bíracha on the apple.

Not on the table

Food items that were not present when the initial bíracha was recited are sometimes included in the bíracha and other times not, as follows:

One recited a bíracha over an orange and an apple was brought to him, must  a new bíracha be recited?

Obviously the person was unaware that he was about to receive an apple because otherwise it would be included in the bíracha. We are referring to a case where the person was unaware that a new fruit was being brought to him.

We find opposing opinions [3] in this matter and the halacha is:

If one consumed the fruit the bíracha was recited upon, then

v     if it is the identical fruit one need not recite a new bíracha. This is because it is normal to continue eating the same fruit (the first fruit provides an appetite) so it is as if one had in mind to eat more of the same.

v     if it is a different fruit one needs to recite a new bíracha.

If one has not consumed the fruit the bíracha was recited upon, then one need not recite a new bíracha even for different fruit. [4]

It was stated previously that it is preferable to have in mind that the bíracha will include all items. [5]

To summarize:

A bíracha on a certain item will include similar items even if one finished eating the original item.

A bíracha on a certain item will not include different items unless they were brought while still eating the original item. Having in mind to eat other fruit while still eating the initial type of fruit will not necessitate a new bíracha. [6]

What if my neighbor brought me an apple while I was eating my first apple, is it included in the bíracha?

Some poskim say that if your neighbor regularly brings you food to eat, we can say that it is similar to food in your house and the above rules apply. If it is irregular for your neighbor to bring you food, then even if it is a similar food item you will need to recite a new bíracha, even if you have not finished your apple. [7]

Important:

As stated in the previous shiur a guest rides on his hostís intentions and will not recite a new bíracha for anything with a similar bíracha. So too a husband rides his wifeís intention.


[1] See MĒB siman 211:32.

[2] See Śśŗķ šŠÝŽš Ű"ś ŗ' ŠšÚÝš.

[3] See MĒB siman 206:22.

[4] See MĒB ibid and siman 211:32.

[5] Rama siman 206:5.

[6] Rav Eliashiv shlita cited in Vízos Habírocho.

[7] Similar to the Mechaber in siman 177:5.


 

Vort on the Parsha

What is the correct way to do chessed?

Rav Eizik Sher, the Rosh Yeshiva of Slabodka cited the gemora Sanhedrin 6b possuk that relates about Dovid Hamelech Śťšť „Ś„ ÚŚýš ÓýŰŤ ŚŲ„ųš (ýÓŚŗž Š' Á' Ť"Ś), that his mishpot was returning stolen money to its owner and tzedakah, that he removed stolen goods from the thief. Rav Sher asked that every dayan does the same, what is so special about Dovid Hamelech?

Rav Sher answered that indeed every dayan might relieve the thief of the stolen goods, but Dovid Hamelechís concern was to help the thief and tzedakah and chessed requires kavanah for that purpose.

If one merely does good deeds out of habit it becomes ďmannersĒ and not necessarily the epitome of chesed.


 

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Note:  The purpose of this series is intended solely for the clarification of the topics discussed and not to render halachic decisions. It is intended to heighten everyone's awareness of important practical questions which do arise on this topic.  One must consult with a proper halachic authority in order to receive p'sak.