A. BEDIKA, BITUL AND BIUR
B. THE BREAD FOR THIS SHABBOS
C. FOOD SERVED FOR THE MEALS
D. MATZA THIS SHABBOS
E. EGG MATZA ON EREV PESACH
F. SEUDAS SHLISHIS
A. BEDIKA, BITUL AND BIUR
Searching, nullifying and burning of Chametz.
1. Bedikas Chametz - Searching for chametz is performed on Thursday night 1, and a bracha 2 is recited. The declaration: 'Kol Chamira....' in which we nullify the chametz, is said after the bedika 3.
2. The chametz is burned (biur chametz) on Friday morning, before the end of the fifth hour 4.
3. Bitul chametz (the nullification) is normally accomplished by reciting the final version of Kol Chamira, after burning the chametz. However, this year we do not make this declaration after biur chametz on Friday. Instead we recite it on Shabbos 5. This must be done in the morning before the end of the fifth hour 6.
4. One should prepare the minimum amount of bread required for two Shabbos meals 7, and store it in a safe place 8. It is permissible to eat chametz on Friday after burning the chametz 9, however, some have a minhag not to eat chametz at all on Friday. Nevertheless, they will eat chametz on Shabbos to fulfil their obligation 10 as detailed below
5. The sale of the chametz is done on Friday before the end of the fifth hour as in other years 11. In case of necessity, it could be sold till Shabbos 12. The chametz which is put aside to be used on Shabbos is not included in the sale 13.
B. THE BREAD FOR THIS SHABBOS
1. On Friday night and the first meal on Shabbos morning, one must eat bread 14.
2. At least a k'zayis of bread must be eaten at each meal. Some maintain that one must eat a little more than a k'beitza 15.
3. It is sensible to eat the bread over napkins which can then be flushed down the toilet together with any leftover crumbs 16.
4. All leftovers should be flushed down the toilet. One should not throw chametz crumbs into a rubbish bin that is owned by a Jew 17.
5. After eating bread one should rinse his mouth and clean his teeth. Care should be taken not to cause the gums to bleed if using toothpicks or precut dental floss 18.
6. The use of a toothbrush is permissible 19, under the following conditions:
a) It must be used without toothpaste 20.
b) The toothbrush is not to be wet 21.
c) One can rinse his mouth first 22.
d) One must not cause the gums to bleed 23.
e) One must not rinse the toothbrush after its use. One can simply brush off any chametz 24.
f) Some poskim require a special toothbrush for Shabbos 25.
g) The toothbrush should be put away with the chametz vessels.
7. Bread may not be eaten on Erev Pesach (Shabbos day this year) after the end of the fourth hour 26, even if one did not have any meals that day 27. After the end of the fifth hour, bread is considered muktza 28.
8. After eating, one should check all the places where chametz was taken as well as the clothing and pockets that were worn during the meal 29.
9. The tablecloth used for chametz should be put away in the chametz cupboard 30.
10. One should not forget to say Kol Chamira, to nullify all chametz before the end of the fifth hour.
C. FOOD SERVED FOR THE MEALS.
1. This Shabbos, one may not cook any dish containing flour or any other chametz which clings to the pot 31.
2. It is advisable to prepare hot foods in Pesach vessels 32 and then use disposable or Pesach plates and silverware (after carefully removing all traces of bread as discussed above).
3. If one prefers to use chametz plates, one must ensure that these do not touch Pesach vessels 33. One must also take care to prevent any splash from a chametz vessel coming into contact with a Pesach vessel 34. There is an opinion that one should not pour from a pot on the fire (kli rishon) into the chametz vessel, but should rather transfer to another Pesach vessel (kli sheini) before pouring into chametz keilim 35.
4. Eating bread in the backyard or in one room, washing up and then continuing the rest of the pesachdik meal inside or in another room, is not an ideal option 36 unless one goes back after the meal and eats more bread in the original place 37.
5. It is proper to refrain from eating on the grass on Shabbos when using water during the meal 38.
D. MATZA THIS SHABBOS
1. Many have a minhag not to eat matza from Rosh Chodesh Nissan 39.
2. On Erev Pesach it is prohibited to eat matza that could be used to fulfil the obligation at night. 40
3. This prohibition starts from amud hashachar (dawn) of Erev Pesach 41. However one should refrain from using matza for the Friday night meal 42, unless it is the only bread he has 43. However, it can be given to children (at night) if one is afraid to give them bread 44, even if one has the minhag not to eat from Rosh Chodesh 45.
4. Children who do not understand the significance of Yetzias Mitzrayim can eat matza on Erev Pesach the whole day 46.
5. This Shabbos, matza that was specially put aside for the sedarim is muktza 47. Other matzos, even shmura matzos, are not muktza 48.
6. Matzos that are not muktza, even though they are prohibited to eat, can be used for Lechem Mishneh 49. Lechem mishneh do not have to touch each other. They can simply be held in one's hand 50. It is best to put the matza in a plastic bag 51. If the matza touched the bread, it could still be eaten 52.
E. EGG MATZA ON EREV PESACH
1. The minhag of Ashkenazim is not to eat egg matza on Pesach except in case of great need for a person who is ill or old and requires it 53.
2. The Shulchan Aruch states that on Erev Pesach, one is permitted to eat egg matza until the beginning of the tenth hour 54. This is the minhag Sefard. The minhag of Ashkenazim is not clearly stated in the Rema concerning Erev Pesach 55.
3. There is an opinion that one should not eat egg matzos on Erev Pesach for the whole day 56.
4. Many poskim are of the opinion that egg matza can be substituted for bread at the Shabbos meals 57. Individuals who are reluctant to eat bread at the meals out of fear that they may not be able to completely eliminate all traces of chametz (eg., if children are likely to spread crumbs about) can eat egg matza instead of bread 58. This is only allowed up until the time that actual chametz may be eaten 59.
5. Care should be taken not to place egg matza in Pesach vessels 60.
6. The bracha on egg matza is mezonos 61 when it is eaten as a snack 62. However if a person is koveiya seuda (partakes of a proper meal) by eating the egg matza together with a regular meal, it is treated halachically as bread 63 and requires netilas yadayim with a bracha 64, the bracha of hamotzi and Bircas HaMazon 65.
F. SEUDAS SHLISHIS
1. To understand the requirements of this Shabbos, let us first review the halachos of the third meal on a regular Shabbos.
a) Seudas Shlishis should not be eaten earlier than a half hour past midday. One who eats earlier does not fulfil his obligation 66.
b) It is preferable to eat the third meal after Mincha 67.
c) One is required to eat bread. Some say cake or mezonos food will suffice. Still others rule that meat or fish can be used to fulfil one's obligation. Lastly there are some poskim who permit even fruit. Even so, unless one is overly full, it is best to wash and eat bread 68.
d) Women are obligated just as men 69.
2. If it is possible to make the third meal after midday, one does not fulfil their obligation by eating in the morning as we have stated above. However, when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, one is not allowed to eat bread after midday. Therefore, some poskim hold that one may eat bread in the morning for the third meal 70.
3. The poskim recommend that the morning meal be split into two 71. One should make a definite break between the two meals by taking a short walk outside 72. Others say one should wait half an hour between meals 73. Most of the foods should be eaten in the first meal 74.
4. If it is complicated to split the meal or it is approaching the end of the fourth hour, beyond which time chametz may no longer be consumed, one may rely on the opinions that permit eating other foods for Seudas Shlishis.
5. Since other poskim are of the opinion that Seudas Shlishis must be eaten after midday even on this Shabbos, one should eat meat, fish or fruit in the afternoon, preferably after Mincha 75, even if they have already eaten two meals in the morning 76.
6. Cake made from matza meal is prohibited to eat the whole day of Erev Pesach. 77
7. Kneidlach are permitted to eat until the beginning of the tenth hour and one can fulfil the obligation of Seudas Shlishis with them 78.
1. Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim (O.C.) 444:1.
2. Mishna Berura (M.B.) 444:1.
3. M.B. ibid.
4. O.C. 442:2, M.B. 444:9. B'dieved, if one did not burn the chametz by this time, he may do so until Chatzos, midday. See Mikrai Kodesh Pesach vol. 1, p.137. Also, the Shulchan Aruch only writes that it is preferred to burn it by this time.
5. O.C. 444:6; Rema 444:2.
6. M.B. 444:22.
7. O.C. 444:1. In regard to leaving over only the minimum amount, see Chemed Moshe 444:4. See also Chag B'chag, Pesach ch.26. Obviously if one leaves over too much bread, it will be difficult to destroy it all on Shabbos.
8. M.B. 444:3. This is especially so if one has small children, one must then be exceedingly cautious.
9. Biur Halacha, 444, s.v. U'meshayrin.
10. Teshuvos v'Hanhagos 2:211, No.5. This is also mentioned in Sefer Hilchos Chag B'chag, Pesach ch.26.
11. As quoted in Mechiras Chametz K'hilchaso 3:19. In the name of the poskim some say that the transfer of ownership takes effect on Shabbos before chametz is forbidden. However, others contend that this is forbidden because of the restriction of mekach u'memchar, buying and selling on Shabbos. See Rav Akiva Eiger 1:259: Har Tzvi, O.C. No. 126; Igres Moshe O.C. 3:44.
12. Mechiras Chametz K'hilchaso, ibid and Piskei Teshuvos, 444:17 quote opinions that this is permissible.
13. If this chametz would also be included in the sale, then eating or benefiting from it would be stealing from the non Jewish buyer and this is forbidden. See Nitei Gavriel, Laws of when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos 5:7 mentioned in Piskei Teshuvos, ibid.
14. O.C. 274:4.
15. O.C. 291; M.B. 291:2. It should be noted that when washing before eating bread the bracha, al netilas yadayim is only recited if one consumes a k'beitza. When eating less than a k'beitza one washes but cannot recite a bracha, O.C. 158:2.
16. By flushing the chametz down the toilet, one fulfils the mitzva of tashbisu.
17. See Igros Moshe O.C. 3:57; Minchas Yitzchak 3:56; She'arim HaMitzuyanim BaHalacha 111:14.
18. One may not inflict a chabura, wound, on Shabbos. See M.B. 327:9.
19. Igros Moshe O.C. 1:112: Minchas Yitzchak 3:48, 50,; Shevet Halevi 5:45.
20. ibid This is forbidden because of the melacha of memare'ach.
21. ibid. When brushing, water is squeezed from the toothbrush. This is forbidden because of the melacha of sechita, squeezing liquids.
22. Shevet Halevi, ibid. Brushing with the little amount of water that remains in the mouth does not constitute sechita.
23. Minchas Yitzchak, ibid: Shevet Halevi, ibid. See M.B. 327:9.
24. Igros Moshe, ibid. This would be hachana, preparing for after Shabbos. Also by rubbing the toothbrush water is squeezed out.
25. Minchas Yitzchak, ibid. Brushing with the same toothbrush used the rest of the week would be uvda d'chol, resembles weekday activity. See O.C. 327:3 for a similar halacha. In that instance it is permissible with a kli utensil designated for Shabbos, see M.B. 327:9. The Shevet Halevi writes that one cannot really compare these two halachos, however it is preferable to have a toothbrush reserved for Shabbos. However the Igros Moshe, ibid, made no mention of this concern. Apparently, he does not consider this uvda d'chol. (The possible prohibition of uprooting the bristles that the above was concerned with, is not mentioned here because today most toothbrushes are very strong and the bristles are not easily removed.)
26. O.C. 443:1.
27. See Sefer Hilchos Pesach, Rabbi S. Eider, ch. 35.
28. M.B. 444:21.
29. Kuntres Hilchos Erev Pesach Shechal B'Shabbos, HaRav Weisssman (this booklet was examined by HaRav Moshe Feinstein z"tl). Based on the Rema, 433:11; M.B. 433:47; O.C. 434.
31. O.C. 444:3.
32. M.B. 444:14
33.Pri Megadim, Eshel Avraham 446:4; Pri Chadash 444:3; Seder Hilchos Erev Pesach Shechal B'Shabbos by HaRav Yosef Chaim Sonnefeld z"tl.
34. Seder Hilchos Erev Pesach Shechal B'Shabbos by HaRav Yosef Chaim Sennefeld z"tl. He writes that one should pour gently.
35. Sha'ar Hatzion 444:4, quoting Pri Megadim, Eshel Avraham 444:4. This is based on the halacha that nitzuk, a constant flow of liquid connects the two keilim. See Taz, Yoreh Deah 105:6 with Pri Megadim. Also Teshuvos v'Hanhagos 2:211, no 6. However, this is only a stringency. The Aruch Hashulchan 444:8, clearly states that one may pour directly from a Pesach plate into chametz dishes.
36. For this is comparable to removing bread from the table and bringing out new foods to eat. The food that is subsequently eaten is not covered by hamotzi and Bircas HaMazon and they require their own bracha both before and after eating O.C. 277:2. Although the Shulchan Aruch writes that this halacha is not common today, see the Biur Halacha there, s.v. sh'ein who explains that this is because this halacha is, at least according to some Rishonim, only applicable if the table itself with the bread is removed and a new table brought out. This was a common practice in Talmudic times but it is very unusual today. Nevertheless, it can be argued that if one would eat bread in one place and then go to a different room or house to continue the meal (without any bread), this is comparable to removing the table, requiring a new bracha before and after eating. This is also the opinion of Rabbi Eider, Halachos of Pesach ch. 35 note 17. However, from the Chazon Ish, O.C. 27:2, it appears that (even when removing the table) this halacha only applies if one removed the bread with the intention of eating fruit or drinking wine, then even other foods that are normally eaten in the course of a meal would also require a new bracha. However, if one's original intention was to eat a normal meal, no new bracha would be required. See Chesev Ha'Efod 3:10 who says that one can rely on this opinion.
Another concern is that one should recite Bircas HaMazon where they ate bread. See O.C. 184:1,2. However, there might be room for leniency in regard to this halacha. The Mishna Berura 184:1 writes that in a sha'as had'chak, a case of necessity, if when one recited hamotzi they intended to say Bircas HaMazon in another room (in the same house), it may be permissible to bentch in the new location. What then is the status of the back garden? Since it is outside and not under the same roof, it might be considered separate from the house. Conversely, because it is an enclosed area, it could be regarded as part of the house. See the author's Kuntres Tzadku Yachdav p.20, which says that it is considered part of the house.
37. See Piskei Teshuvos 444:13 quoting Minchas Yitzchak 6:48. See also Piskei Teshuvos ibid. who quotes Nitei Gavriel that b'sha'as had'chak, it is enough if only the head of the household returns and eats bread there.
38. Rema 336:3 writes that it is difficult to avoid spilling any liquid which would be a violation of zorea, planting.
39. M.B. 471:12. See Igros Moshe O.C. 1:155 who brings a source for this minhag.
40. Rema 471:2.
41. M.B. ibid.
42. This is in accordance with the Magen Avraham 471:6 who rules that this restriction begins the night before. Even though the majority of Achronim dispute this ruling, nevertheless the Igros Moshe 1:155 writes that one should try and be stringent as ruled by the Magen Avraham. Another reason is mentioned in the Seder HaAruch 1:7, note 44 in the name of Pri Hasadeh 3:187 and Chok Yisrael no.16 that some are strict in this regard so as not to be confused in other years when Erev Pesach falls out on a weekday.
43. She'arim HaMitzuyanim BaHalacha 115:6.
44. Hilchos Chag B'Chag ch. 26 note 34 as this is the majority opinion and it can be relied upon to avoid the problem of chametz spreading and being difficult to remove.
45. Ibid. This minhag was accepted as a middas Chassidus out of chavivus, love for the mitzva. It was not accepted in regard to children in such a situation.
46. Rema 471:2; M.B. 471:14.
47. Pri Megadim, Eshel Avraham 444:1 (not to be confused with Eshel Avraham from Botchatch, 308:58 who writes that it is not muktza).
48. Pri Megadim, ibid, as understood by Hilchos Chag B'Chag ch. 26 note 33, that it is only muktza if it was designated for the seder. Also brought by Shalmei Yehuda, Hilchos Muktza 8:20 with note 67 in the name of Rav Binyamin Zilber, Shlita.
49. Chazon Ish, Kovetz Igaros 1:188; Shemiras Shabbos K'Hilchaso 55:14.
50. O.C. 274:1; 465:1 quoted by She'arim HaMitzuyanim BaHalacha 115:6.
51. Orchos Rabbeinu vol 2, Erev Pesach shechal B'Shabbos no 7.
52. O.C. 447:1; M.B. 447:7. Chametz can only make matza forbidden through direct contact if they are both hot to the degree of yad soledes bo, the degree of heat from which the hand recoils from fear of being burnt quoted in She'arim HaMitzuyanim BaHalacha 115:6. However, the matza should be brushed off first.
53. Rema 462:4; M.B. 462:15, 18 because we are concerned that it might become chametz.
54. The Shulchan Aruch O.C. 471:1,2, 444:1 writes that it is permissible until the tenth hour. However, this is according to the Sefardic tradition which is not concerned that egg matza might turn into chametz as is written in O.C. 462. Also, since one cannot fulfil the obligation of eating matza on the first night of Pesach with egg matza, the Mishna Berura 471:10 explains that it may therefore be eaten Erev Pesach.
55. Shemiras Shabbos K'Hilchaso ch. 56 note 49 points out an apparent contradiction in the Rema on the Shulchan Aruch's ruling 444:1 that egg matza can be eaten Erev Pesach. The Rema writes that the custom in our countries is not to eat egg matza. Clearly he forbids eating egg matza on Erev Pesach. In 471:2 however, it appears that he agrees with the Shulchan Aruch and that it is permissible to eat egg matza on Erev Pesach. See Sho'eil U'Meishiv Mahadura Kamma 1:175 and Chelkas Yoav O.C. 16. However, the Aruch Hashulchan 444:5 and the Chok Yaakov 444:1 both explain that there is no reason to forbid eating egg matza on Erev Pesach, the Rema is only speaking from a practical point of view. As the Ashkenazic custom is not to eat egg matza, matza is not prepared with fruit juices. Therefore, egg matza cannot be found to eat on Erev Pesach. Although one could bake egg matza specially for this Shabbos, we do not cause one to expend such effort in order to eat Seudas Shlishis.
56. Biur HaGra 444:1 s.v. U'BeMedinos. Tosafos Pesachim 99b proves from the Gemara there that it is permissible to eat egg matza until the tenth hour. The Gra however understands this Gemara differently - therefore we do not have a source that permits eating it. See also Yesodei Yeshurun vol. 6. p63 and Sefer Erev Pesach Shechal B'Shabbos by Rav Tzvi Cohen.
57. Igros Moshe O.C. 1:155; Noda Be Yehuda O.C. 1:21 quoted by Sha'arei Teshuva O.C. 444:1; Aruch HaShulchan 444:5; Chok Yaakov 444:1.
58. Igros Moshe, ibid.
59. Igros Moshe ibid; Shulchan Aruch HaRav 444:3.
60. Piskei Teshuvos 444, note 19 in the name of HaRav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach z"tl. This can be compared to kitniyos (legumes) and to those that forbid gebrokts.
61. O.C. 168:6,7.
63. M.B. 168:24 based on the Magen Avrahom.
64. O.C. 158:1; M.B. 158:8; Kaf HaChaim 158:7.
65. O.C. 168:6. See also Igros Moshe O.C. 3:32 for a general ruling and 1:155 regarding when Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos. There he brings the Sha'arei Teshuva 168:9 that if one eats pas haba b'kisnin (see O.C. 168:6,7) which includes egg matza for one of the three Shabbos meals even if he is not eating any other foods it is considered a k'viyus, a set meal necessitating hamotzi and Bircas Hamazon. This is all the more so if one eats a full meal with egg matza instead of bread. See M.B. 168:24. See also Kehillas Yaakov Brachos no.16 which discusses whether one fulfils the mitzva of Seudas Shabbos when one does not eat enough to satiate oneself.
66. O.C. 291:2.
67. Rema ibid.
68. All the various opinions are mentioned in O.C. 291:5.
69. O.C. 291:6.
70. Bach 444 s.v. U'ma. He writes that this is also the opinion of the Mordechai, the Hagahos Maimonis and the Yereiim. It is also mentioned in the Biur HaGra 444:1 s.v. u'hamedinos.
71. M.B. 444:8; Kovetz Igros Chazon Ish 1:188.
72. Laws of Pesach, Rabbi S. Eider ch. 35, note 11 based on M.B. 291:14. This is also brought in Hilchos Chag B'Chag, Pesach ch. 26. The Piskei Teshuvos 444:6 brings the Taz 291:2 and the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 115:4 that one makes a short break with a d'var Torah or a walk. It is also mentioned there that if time is very short, one can wash and eat the next meal immediately without a break.
73. Chazon Ish, ibid.
74. This is because the second meal of Shabbos (the first day meal) is considered to be the main Shabbos meal. See O.C. 271:3 and Piskei Teshuvos 444:5.
75. This is the simple interpretation of the Rema 444:1 and 291:5. This is also the opinion of the M.B. 44:14 and the Chazon Ish in Kovetz Igros ibid.
76. Piskei Teshuvos 444:5 with note 45 from Mekor Chaim 444:1, Chemed Moshe, Da'as Torah and others. It is also brought by Chazon Ish ibid.
77. Rema 471:2; M.B. 471:19,20. Since it was once matza, it does not lose it's status by breaking it into crumbs. it is still considered matza.
78. M.B. 444:8, 471:20. Since the matza meal was also cooked, it loses it's status as matza.