by Zvi Akiva Fleisher
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SEDRAH SELECTIONS - YOM KIPPUR 5762 BS"D
SEDER HO'AVODOH OF MUSSOF OF YOM KIPPUR - "K'sheh'hoyoh Hashem yotzei mipi Kohen Godol, When the Holy Name of Hashem EMANATED from the mouth of the Kohen Godol" - The Shulchan Oruch of the Ari z"l explains why the words "Yotzei mipi Kohen Godol" are used rather than "K'she'omar Kohen Godol" - when the Kohen Godol SAID Hashem's name. He says that the Kohen Godol did not actually say Hashem's name but rather only opened his mouth and the name of Hashem miraculously emanated from his mouth. With this he explains a difficult verse in Shmos 20:24. "B'chol mokom asher AZKIR es sh'mi..." The literal translation is: In every place that I will cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you." Rashi says that to understand this verse we must switch around the phrases and explain as follows: Wherever I come to bless you, that means the Beis Hamikdosh - you may mention My name. This teaches us that in the Beis Hamikdosh, Hashem's name is pronounced exactly as it is written. We have two difficulties here. One is that we have to switch around the phrases, and the second is that the word AZKIR is not well translated. Rashi explains it to mean that you, the Kohen, may mention My name, but the verse says AZKIR- I will cause My name to be mentioned. According to the Ari z"l's explanation, everything flows smoothly because Hashem is saying His name through the conduit of the Kohen Godol's mouth.
Yom Kippur never falls on a Friday or a Sunday. If it would we would have Shabbos and Yom Kippur back-to-back. This would create the following problems:
1) One who would die late Friday afternoon or on Shabbos could not be buried for two days.
2) In the days when there was no refrigeration vegetables would wither.
This is a ritual where one takes a live object, commonly a rooster for a male and a chicken for a female, and says a prayer, entreating Hashem to forgive his/her sins and symbolically having any evil decrees transferred to the bird. Others use a fish or another live animal. It is then slaughtered and then it (or its value) is given to the poor. Some use money and afterwards give it to charity. One should not use a species that is acceptable as a sacrifice on the altar at the Beis Hamikdosh, such as pigeons.
The earliest sources for this custom:
1) Rashi on the gemara Shabbos 81b D.H. "hai farpisa" says that there was a custom to place seeds into a planter before Rosh Hashonoh and once it sprouted, it was swung over the heads of people and a prayer was said that a year of life should be granted.
2) The gemara K'suvos 5a asks, "If Yom Kippur falls out on a Monday, shouldn't the Rabbis adjust the calendar to push off Yom Kippur lest someone come to inadvertantly slaughter a bird on the previous Shabbos?" Rashi says that it was everyone's practice to slaughter many birds for the very large erev Yom Kippur meal. However, Rav Amrom Gaon says that people would slaughter birds on the eve of Shabbos. This is obviously too early for the erev Yom Kippur meal and must have been the practice of slaughtering KAPOROS. (Otzeir Ha'yoshon)
The one who will slaughter the bird should be the one who waves the bird above the head of the owner. (Tzeidoh La'derech)
If the bird is found ritually unfit for consumption through improper slaughtering, "n'veiloh," another bird should be used. (Knaf Raananoh) If it is found to be a "treifoh," having a physical disorder which renders it not kosher, there is a doubt if another bird is required, so money equal to its value should be given to the poor. (S'dei Chemed on Yom Kippur vol. 1, #13)
SEDER AMIDAS YOM KIPPUR - FROM THE TEXT OF THE STANDING SILENT PRAYERS:
"Ki Atoh SOLCHON l'Yisroel u'MOCHOLON l'shivtei Y'shurun" - Why are the words SOLCHON and MOCHOLON used, rather than "Ki Atoh SOLEI'ACH l'Yisroel u'MOCHEIL l'shivtei Y'shurun?"
The Holy Admor Rabbi Yisroel of Ruzhin answers with the gemara Bovo Metzia 33a which derives from the word "roveitz" (Shmos 23:5) to exclude a "ravtzon." There is a mitzvoh to help a fellow man with his load-bearing animal which has buckled under the weight of its load. However this only applies if the animal buckles occasionally, as indicated by the word "roveitz," meaning - it buckles. However if the animal constantly does so when it carries a load, it has the status of a "ravtzon," meaning a "buckler." This is an appellation that indicates an occupation, a reliably constant activity. When a friend's "buckler" is in need of help, there is no mitzvoh requirement to come to its aid.
Similarly, had the text of our prayer been MOCHEIL and SOLEI'ACH it would indicate that Hashem sometimes forgives and pardons. However, by saying MOCHOLON and SOLCHON, we are stating that Hashem is a constant and reliable FORGIVER and PARDONER.
SEDER HO'AVODOH OF MUSSOF OF YOM KIPPUR
"K'she'hoyoh Hashem yotzei mipi Kohein Godol," - When the Holy Name of Hashem EMANATED from the mouth of the Kohein Godol" - The Shulchan Oruch of the Ari z"l explains why the words "Yotzei mipi Kohein Godol" are used rather than "K'she'omar Kohein Godol" - when the Kohein Godol SAID Hashem's name. He says that the Kohein Godol did not actually say Hashem's name but rather only opened his mouth and the name of Hashem miraculously emanated from his mouth. With this he explains a difficult verse in Shmos 20:24. "B'chol mokom asher AZKIR es sh'mi ......" The literal translation is: "In every place that I will cause My name to be mentioned, I will come to you and bless you." Rashi says that to understand this verse we must switch around the phrases and explain as follows: Wherever I come to bless you, which means the Beis Hamikdosh, you may mention My name. This teaches us that in the Beis Hamikdosh, Hashem's name is pronounced exactly as it is written. We have two difficulties here. One is that we have to switch around the phrases, and the second is that the word AZKIR is not well translated. Rashi explains it to mean that you, the Kohein, may mention My name, but the verse says AZKIR, I will cause My name to be mentioned. According to the Ari z"l's explanation, everything flows smoothly because Hashem is saying His Own Holy name through the conduit of the Kohein Godol's mouth.
PARSHAS EMOR SECTION DEALING WITH YOM KIPPUR
Vayikroh 23:27: "ACH be'osor" - ACH denotes limitation (see Rashi Eruvin 105a, P'sochim 5a, 71a). Other Yomim Tovim are honoured with holiday clothing and festive foods. On Yom Kippur, where eating and drinking are prohibited, honouring the Yom Tov is limited to wearing holiday clothing. (Baalei Tosfos in Hadar Z'keinim)
Vayikroh 23:31 "Kol m'lochoh lo saasu chukas olom l'doroseichem" - The Meshech Chochmoh asks why the verse only mentions the restriction to work as a statute for all time, and not the restriction to eat or drink. He answers that since King Shlomo waived the restriction to eat or drink on Yom Kippur when the Beis Hamikdosh was completed, the prohibition to eat and drink is not for all times. Therefore our verse only mentions the restriction to work as a law for all times.
I have a bit of difficulty with this from Vayikroh 16:31 which says, "Shabbas Shabbosone hee lochem v'ini'sem es nafshoseichem chukas olom." We see the Torah mentioning that the law applies to all times regarding both the restraint from work and to afflict oneself (fasting). Perhaps the word "l'doroseichem" missing in 16:31 and appearing in 23:31 makes a difference.
Vayikroh 23:32: "Shabbas Shabbosone" - The Kli Yokor explains the double expression of "shvisoh" used for Yom Kippur. He says that Shabbos brings with itself a rest from the external activities of the body, namely creative work. It does not, however, contain a rest from the internal urges of a person, which are heightened by eating and drinking, which charge the blood and fat (dam v'cheilev). The prohibitions to eat or drink on Yom Kippur bring a second form of rest, that of the internal urges. This seems to explain why the double term is not used by Yomim Tovim, but Shabbos does have the double term in numerous places, as mentioned above, in spite of having no eating or drinking restrictions. The Kli Yokor might have to explain this by saying that Shabbos has a total restriction including carrying and "t'chumin," which some say does not apply to Yom Kippur. Any insights would be appreciated.
GMAR CHASIMOH TOVOH!
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