POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Kesuvos 60
1) RECOGNIZING THE MOTHER
(a) Question: At what age do we say that a child recognizes
2) HOW LONG MAY A CHILD NURSE?
(b) Answer #1 (Rav): 3 months.
(c) Answer #2 (Shmuel) 30 days.
(d) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): 50 days.
1. (Rav Simi Bar Abaye): The law is as R. Yochanan.
(e) We understand, Rav and R. Yochanan - some babies are
faster to recognize their mothers than others.
1. Question: According to Shmuel - can a baby recognize
his mother after 30 days?
(f) Question: How can a blind baby recognize its mother?
2. Answer (Rami Bar Yechezkeil): What was said in
Shmuel's name (by my brother Rav Yehudah) is
incorrect. Really, Shmuel said it only depends on
when the baby recognizes her.
i. A woman came in front of Shmuel; Shmuel told
Rav Dimi to see if her son recognized her. He
sat her among other women, and passed her son
by them. When he got to her, the baby was
looking at her. He told her, she must nurse her
(g) Answer: By smell and taste.
(a) (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): A child may nurse for 24 months;
past this, it is as nursing from a disgusting thing;
3) A NURSING WOMAN MAY NOT MARRY
(b) R. Yehoshua says, he may nurse 4 or 5 years. If he
stopped nursing after 24 months and resumes, it is as
nursing from a disgusting thing.
(c) Contradiction (Beraisa): One would think that human milk
1. This would be logical. By animals, we are lenient by
the Tumah of touching them (they are Tahor while
alive), but we forbid the milk of non-Kosher
(d) Answer: When it has separated from the breast (into a
vessel), it is permitted; to nurse (above the given age)
2. Humans, that can become Tamei while alive, all the
more so we should say that their milk is forbidden!
3. "The camel ... *it* chews the cud" - (its milk is
forbidden) - but the milk of humans is permitted.
4. One might think that only milk of humans is
permitted, since milk of some animals is permitted -
but regarding blood, the blood of every animal is
forbidden, also the blood of humans should be
5. "It" - is forbidden, but the blood of humans is
i. (Rav Sheshes): It is not even an attribute to
refrain from human milk.
1. The opposite applies to blood.
(e) (Beraisa - R. Yehoshua): A child may nurse until 4 or 5
i. (Beraisa): Blood on a loaf - one scrapes it off
and may then eat the loaf; blood between one's
teeth - one may swallow it without concern.
(f) Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yehoshua): Even if he can
carry a bundle on his shoulder!
(g) Answer: This is the same Shi'ur (as 4 or 5).
1. (Rav Yosef): The law is as R. Yehoshua.
(h) (Beraisa - R. Marinus): A moaning child may nurse on
1. The reason is - nursing is Mefarek (a derivative of
Dash (threshing)), done in an unskilled way (and is
only forbidden mid'Rabanan); Chachamim did not
prohibit it in a situation of pain.
(i) (Beraisa - Nachum Ish Galya): A gutter pipe that became
clogged - one may privately squash the clogging matter
with his foot, without concern.
i. (Rav Yosef): The law is as R. Marinus.
1. The reason is - this is an unskillful way of
completing a vessel (normally, forbidden
mid'Rabanan); in the place of a loss, Chachamim did
(j) (Beraisa): If he ceased nursing after 24 months, he may
not resume nursing.
2. Nursing is Mefarek (a derivative of Dash
(threshing)), done in an unskilled way (and is only
forbidden mid'Rabanan); Chachamim did not prohibit
it in a situation of pain.
i. (Rav Yosef) The law is as Nachum Ish Galya.
(k) Question: How long is considered that he stopped?
(l) Version #1: (Rav Yehudah Bar Chaviva, citing Shmuel): 3
(m) Version #2: (Beraisa, said by Rav Yehudah Bar Chaviva, in
front of Shmuel): 3 days.
(a) (Beraisa - R. Meir): A nursing woman was widowed during
the 24 months of nursing. She may not get engaged or
married until 24 months;
4) OBLIGATIONS OF A NURSING WOMAN
1. R. Yehudah says, she may remarry after 18 months;
(b) (R. Nasan Bar Yosef): These Tana'im argue as Beis Shamai
and Beis Hillel.
1. Beis Shamai say that a baby should nurse 24 months;
Beis Hillel say 18.
(c) (R. Shimon Ben Gamliel): The opinion that says 24 months
- she may marry after 21;
(d) The opinion that says 18 months - she may marry after 15;
1. This is because milk does not get clouded during the
first 3 months of pregnancy.
(e) (Ula): The law is as R. Yehudah.
(f) (Mar Ukva): R. Chanina permitted me to marry a nursing
woman after the baby was 15 months old.
(g) Abaye's sharecropper asked if he may engage a nursing
woman when the baby is 15 months old.
1. (Abaye): (Yes!) Firstly, the rule is the law is as
R. Yehudah when he argues on R. Meir.
(h) Abaye came before Rav Yosef (his Rebbi).
2. Secondly, the law is as Beis Hillel against Beis
3. Thirdly, Ula ruled as R. Yehudah.
4. Fourthly, R. Chanina permitted this to Mar Ukva.
5. These rulings permit Nesu'in - all the more so,
engagement is allowed!
1. Rav Yosef: Rav and Shmuel both say that one must
wait 24 months, excluding the day of birth and the
day of engagement.
(i) (Beraisa): If a woman gave her baby to a wet-nurse, or
weaned the baby, or the baby died, she may marry
2. Abaye ran 3 Parsei (some say 1 Parsa in sand), but
did not catch his sharecropper to retract his
3. Abaye: This that Chachamim say - 'Do not rule in the
place of your Rebbi, even that eggs may be eaten
with Kutach (which is dairy) - the reason is not
because it shows arrogance - rather, he will rule
i. I had learned this teaching of Rav and Shmuel,
still, I erred.
(j) Rav Papa was ready to rule a case as this Beraisa. A
woman told him, Rav Nachman had forbidden her to marry in
such a case.
(k) Question: But Rav Nachman permitted widows of the
(l) Answer: A widow of the Exilarch's house is different - a
wet-nurse that accepted to nurse her baby would not
(m) Question (Rav Papi): Even without this woman's case, we
could learn from a Beraisa!
1. (Beraisa - R. Meir): Even the following must wait 3
months before remarrying (even though it is unlikely
or impossible that they are pregnant): a wife that
was constantly going to her father's home;
(n) Response (Rav Papa): I was not thinking about this
i. Or, she was quarrelling with her husband;
2. R. Yosi says she may marry immediately.
ii. Her husband was imprisoned;
iii. Her husband was overseas;
iv. Her husband was too old to have children, or
v. She was too old to have children, or sterile,
or an Ailonis, or a minor;
vi. She miscarried after her husband died;
vii. Her womb was uprooted;
i. (Rav Nachman): The law is as R. Meir in his
(o) The law is, if the baby died, she may marry; if she
weaned it, she must wait;
1. (Mar Bar Rav Ashi): Even if it died, she must wait -
otherwise, she may come to kill her baby in order to
i. Such a case occurred, a woman choked her baby!
2. Rejection: No - that woman was insane - a normal
woman would not kill her baby.
(a) (Beraisa): A woman that accepted to nurse a baby - she
may not also nurse her own or another baby;
(b) If meager food was stipulated, she must still eat well;
1. Question: Who will pay for the extra food?
(c) She may not eat things bad for the milk.
2. Answer (Rav Sheshes): She does.
1. Question: What is bad for the milk?
(d) People that have relations in a mill will have epileptic
children; relations on the ground, the children will be
2. Answer #1 (Rav Kahane): Hops, grass, small fish and
3. Answer #2 (Abaye): Even gourds and quince.
4. Answer #3 (Rav Papa): Even bark and immature dates.
5. Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): Even Kutach (a dairy dish made
with stale bread) and fried breaded fish.
i. Some of these withhold milk; others cloud it.
1. If she walked on the blood of a donkey, the children
will be bald or leprous; if she ate mustard, the
children will be gluttonous;
2. If she ate cress, the children's eyes will
constantly tear; if she often eats small fish, the
children's eyes will always be moving;
3. If she ate earth, the children will be ugly; if she
drank beer, the children will be black;
4. If she ate beef and drank wine, the children will be