BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafSukah 42
SUKA 42 (42nd of Omer/27 Iyar) - Dedicated by Gitle Bekelnitzky in honor of
the 1st yahrzeit of her father, Zev ben Ephraim v'Chaya Krause.
1) [line 5] LEKICHAH AL YEDEI DAVAR ACHER SHEMAH LEKICHAH
(a) There is a Mitzvah to take in one's hand the four species on Sukos, in
an unmitigated manner ("Lekichah Tamah") as it states in the Torah
("u'Lekachtem Lachem..." -- Vayikra 23:40). Similarly, there is a Mitzvah
for the person who sprinkles Mei Chatas (see Background to Sukah 20:5) on a
person who is Tamei Mes, to take the Ezov in his hand in an unmitigated
manner ("u'Lekachtem Agudas Ezov..." -- Shemos 12:22, see Sukah 11b) and dip
it in the Mei Chatas. The Amora'im argue as to whether a person fulfills the
requirement of Lekichah Tamah when he picks up and holds the Lulav or Ezov
with the help of another item, when that item does not constitute a
"Chatzitzah" (an intervening substance -- see Background to Yoma 58:2a).
(b) The Rishonim argue as to how it is possible that an item can cover a
person's hand and not constitute a Chatzitzah. There are those who write
that a Chatzitzah does not invalidate the Mitzvah of Lulav at all; the only
consideration is Lekichah Tamah (RITVA, quoting the RAMBAN 37a). Others rule
that a Chatzitzah does indeed invalidate the Mitzvah, however, such is not
the case when an item helps the person hold the Lulav (such as when it is
wrapped around his hand, or when the item is in the shape of a cup and the
Lulav is placed in it) (TOSFOS 37a DH d'Ba'ina, and see Insights to Sukah
2) [line 7] OLAS HA'OF
The offering of the Olas Ha'of consists of four procedures:
(a) MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Yoma 22:13) of the Mizbe'ach,
on the *southeastern* corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the
bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea
and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with
Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are
offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
3) [line 8] BEIN AGAPAYIM - amongst winged [birds that were Korbenos Chatas,
upon which Melikah had already been performed, that were lying next to the
southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach]
(b) MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird
onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is
located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
(c) HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire
on the Mizbe'ach.
(d) HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers
of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines --
Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the
Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiya), salts it, and throws it
into the fire.
4) [line 8] CHATAS HA'OF
The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim on the day that it is offered and
the following night. No part of it is burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering
of the Chatas ha'Of consists of three procedures:
(a) MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the *southwestern*
corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird
with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea
or the esophagus), but not to sever the entire neck of the bird.
5) [line 9] TA'AH BI'DEVAR MITZVAH PATUR
(b) HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from
the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located
halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
(c) MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and
squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(a) A person must bring a Korban Chatas if he transgresses a prohibition
b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which the Kares punishment applies for
intentional transgression. A person must bring a Korban Asham for Me'ilah
b'Shogeg, unintentionally benefiting from Kodshim.
(b) If a person does an Aveirah that makes him liable to bring a Korban
Chatas or Asham, but he thought that he was actually performing a Mitzvah of
the Torah through his action, the Tana'im argue as to whether he is liable
to bring a Korban or not.
(c) Even if To'eh b'Devar Mitzvah is Patur, there are various opinions among
the Tana'im and Amora'im with regard to exactly when this Petur applies and
when it does not:
1. Some say a person is Patur only if he actually performs a Mitzvah but not
if he does not end up performing a Mitzvah through his actions. This is the
subject of an argument between the Tana Kama and Rebbi Meir in Pesachim 72a.
6) [line 15] MEVUKAR
2. Others say that the Petur of To'eh b'Devar Mitzvah only applies when the
person is in a rush because his time is limited ("Zemano Bahul"). If he has
the option of doing the Mitzvah on the next day, he is liable to bring a
Korban Chatas. (This is the reasoning of the Gemara Pesachim 72b, as opposed
to the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan there.)
3. Still others rule that we only exempt *ha'To'eh* (one who makes a
mistake) b'Devar Mitzvah, and not someone who was *Shogeg* b'Devar Mitzvah
(where he transgresses the Isur accidentally due to a lack of care) -- RASHI
Pesachim 73b DH Im Yesh Shehus, and Sukah here DH mi'Lishkah.
(These are just some of the numerous details of this Halachah. More details
are discussed in Pesachim 72b.)
Animals that are used as Korbanos have to be checked for four days prior to
being brought as a Korban, to ensure that they are free of blemishes. Six
lambs that are free of blemishes are kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im in the
Mikdash. Two are used every day: one for the Korban Tamid Shel Shachar (the
Korban Olah of the morning) and one for the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim (the
Korban Olah of the late afternoon). Two more were brought daily to replace
the ones used for the Tamid. In this manner, each lamb has three days in the
Lishkah before being sacrificed on the fourth day.
7) [line 16] BAR MINAH DEHA'HI - except for that case; i.e. that case is
8) [line 20] LISHKAH SHE'EINAN MEVUKARIN - a chamber in the Beis ha'Mikdash
that contained lambs that were not yet checked for blemishes
9) [line 28] LISHMOR TEFILIN - to take care of Tefilin; i.e. he is careful
(a) not to enter an outhouse wearing Tefilin (RASHI); (b) not to sleep or
pass gas when wearing them (Shulchan Aruch 37:3)
10) [line 35] HA'YODE'A LISHA'EL - a minor who can be asked (and will
11) [line 36] BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM, SEFEIKO TAHOR
Since the Halachos of Tum'as Safek (uncertain Tum'ah) are learned from the
case of Sotah (see Background to Berachos 63:6), the ruling in each case of
Tum'as Safek depends upon its similarity to the case of a Sotah. One of the
requisites is that the Tum'ah be in a Makom Stirah (concealed place). If an
object is in Reshus ha'Rabim, which has a constant influx of people, and we
are not sure if this object is Tamei mid'Oraisa, the Torah tells us to
consider it Tahor. If it is in Reshus ha'Yachid, which is a Makom Stirah,
the Torah tells us to consider it Tamei.
12) [line 36] LIFROS KAPAV - to spread out his hands [and say Birkas
13) [last line] BEIS HA'GERANOS - threshing floor
14) [line 5] KEDEI ACHILAS PERAS
(a) The Torah specifies that a k'Zayis is the amount of food that
constitutes a "Ma'aseh Achilah," the minimum Halachically-binding act of
eating and digesting. A person who eats a k'Zayis of a food in order to
fulfill a Mitzvah (such as Matzah), has fulfilled his requirement.
Similarly, someone who eats a k'Zayis of a prohibited food (such as blood or
Chelev), is punished for his act. In addition, the Rabanan specify that a
child who eats a k'Zayis of grain products produces foul excrement near
which Divrei Kedushah (blessings, prayers, etc.) may not be recited.
(b) The Torah also specifies the amount of time in which a k'Zayis must be
eaten in order for the act to be considered a Ma'aseh Achilah. This amount
of time, called a "Kedei Achilas Peras," is defined as the amount of time
that it takes to eat three (according to Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah) or four
(according to Rebbi Shimon -- Eruvin 82b) Beitzim of bread with relish,
while reclining. A person who eats a k'Zayis of Matzah in more than this
amount of time has not fulfilled the Mitzvah, and a person who eats a
k'Zayis of Isur in more than this amount of time is exempt from punishment.
Similarly, a child who eats a k'Zayis of grain products in more than this
amount of time does not produce foul excrement.
15) [line 8] "...V'YOSIF DA'AS YOSIF MACH'OV." - "...and he who increases
knowledge increases pain." (Koheles 1:18)
16) [line 11] LEVARER ACHILAH - to differentiate between edible and inedible
*****PEREK #4 LULAV VA'ARAVAH*****
17) [line 14] ARAVAH
(a) On the first six days of Sukos (except Shabbos), very long willow
branches were cut in Motza, near Yerushalayim, and brought to the Beis
ha'Mikdash. These branches were placed standing alongside the Mizbe'ach,
with their tops leaning over the Mizbe'ach. The Kohanim circled the
Mizbe'ach once, reciting certain prayers. (According to one opinion (Sukah
43b), they circled the Mizbe'ach carrying these branches.)
(b) On Hoshana Rabah, the seventh day of Sukos, the Kohanim circled the
Mizbe'ach seven times, amidst extensive prayers for spiritual growth,
salvation and bountiful crops. If Hoshana Rabah fell on Shabbos, the willow
branches that were used in the ceremony were cut before Shabbos (Sukah 45a,
RAMBAM Hilchos Lulav 7:20-21).
18) [line 15] HA'SIMCHAH - rejoicing by eating the meat of the Korban
19) [line 15] NISUCH HA'MAYIM
(a) One of the Mitzvos of the festival of Sukos in the Beis a'Mikdash was
the Nisuch ha'Mayim (water libation that is offered on the Mizbe'ach). Three
Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water were drawn from the Shilo'ach spring that
is located to the south of the Temple Mount. The water was brought to the
Azarah in a joyous procession, to fulfill the verse, "u'Sh'avtem Mayim
b'Sason..." ("and you shall draw water with rejoicing..." - Yeshayah 12:3).
(b) The Kohen who was chosen to pour the water ascended the Mizbe'ach and
poured the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (the silver
libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). This took
place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice, amidst
20) [line 16] HE'CHALIL (the flute that played at the Simchas Beis
SIMCHAS BEIS HA'SHO'EVAH
21) [line 24] HA'CHAZANIN - the officials who took care of the needs of the
people on Har ha'Bayis
(a) One of the observances of the holiday of Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash
was the Nisuch ha'Mayim (water libation). It is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai,
but the Chachamim found a hint for it in the Torah (see Shabbos 103b). Water
was drawn from the Shilo'ach spring that is located to the south of the
Temple Mount and was brought to the Azarah in a joyous procession, to
fulfill the Pasuk "u'Sh'avtem Mayim b'Sason..." ("and you shall draw water
with rejoicing..." - Yeshayah 12:3).
(b) The Kohen who was chosen to pour the water ascended the Mizbe'ach and
poured the water into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located
in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). This took place at the time of
the morning Tamid sacrifice, amidst much rejoicing.
(c) During the nights of Sukos, the people at the Beis ha'Mikdash sang
praises to HaSh-m until it was time to draw water once again. The Leviyim
played more musical instruments than usual. Only the greatest Chachamim were
allowed to dance or juggle. Many torches and fires were lit; all of the
streets of Yerushalayim were as bright as day because of them. The Mishnah
that describes the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah (Sukah 51a) claims that anyone
who has not seen the rejoicing of the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah has not seen
rejoicing in his life.
22) [line 25] ITZTEVA - a raised stone platform that was used as a bench
upon which to sit or to place objects. Two rows of such benches surrounded
the inside wall of Har ha'Bayis. The benches were covered to provide
protection from the rain