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1) [line 1] ANT TZAVIS L'CHARUVEI VEISA YADCHA ASHLEIMAS LEI - (a) you wanted to destroy the house (the Beis ha'Mikdash), now I have paid back [the Master of the house] with [the severing of] your hand (Rashi, according to MENACHEM MESHIV NEFESH); (b) you wanted to destroy HaSh-m's house and it cost you your hand (Rashi's second option, according to MENACHEM MESHIV NEFESH)
2) [line 11] ASAFSUF - mixed multitude
5) [line 20] "KARA ALAI MO'ED LISHBOR BACHURAI" - "He proclaimed a set time against me to crush my young men." (Eichah 1:15) - Abaye interprets this verse to mean "He proclaimed a festival (the added 30th day of Tamuz) in order to crush my young men." The added day caused the spies to return on the inauspicious day of the 9th of Av.
7) [line 26] NEVUZARADAN RAV TABACHIM - the general who was sent by Nevuchadnetzar to destroy Yerushalyim, burn the Beis ha'Mikdash and take the survivors captive to Bavel
8) [line 36] MEGALGELIN ZECHUS L'YOM ZAKAI - The Creator times favorable events so that they happen on special dates that have a history of favorable events.
9) [line 41] TURNUSRUFUS HA'RASHA - a Roman procurator of Jerusalem at the time of the Emperor Hadrian
10a) [line 42] BA'AL HA'CHOTAM MISBAKESH - (lit. the one with the nose -
which is the distinctive feature of the face) (a) the distinguished man of
stature; (b) the greatest sage of the generation
14) [line 50] "...MEKARKAR KIR V'SHO'A EL HA'HAR." - "[For it is a day of trouble, and of trampling, and of confusion by HaSh-m in the Valley of Vision,] a breaking down of walls, and a crying to the mountains." (Yeshayah 22:5)
15) [line 2] LISHTAMIT MINEI - should get away from it (the judgement); i.e. reschedule it for a different month, and if possible, for Adar
16) [line 3] D'RI'A MAZALEI - since it (the month of Av) has bad fortune